Animal & Human Development


What is an Animal?
Read pp. 606 to 61o in Miller & Levine and answer #1 - 4 on p. 610. Then do the following activity: Within your group, make a 17" x 22" poster showing the different ways that animals survive, from pp. 608 to 610. Do not copy diagrams out of the book; rather, use the available magazines and markers to make a well-designed poster!
    Animal Body Plans
    Read pp. 611 to 616  in Miller & Levine and answer #1 - 4 on p. 616. Then do the following activity: Individually, you will design a "fantasy" animal by choosing variations of features from the Body Plans chart on p. 614. You will sketch the animal on an 8.5" x 11" (one sheet) poster (you may use a collage of cutouts from magazines, etc.) and be ready to present it to others, describing its body plan. You should show both internal and external features.
    Go Bony Fish
    Use a computer or book to help answer #1 - 8:
    1. How is a tissue related to a cell?
    2. How is an organ related to a tissue?
    3. What is the relationship between cells, tissues and organs? Create a diagram to demonstrate.
    4. What does it mean that something has symmetry?
    5. What kinds of organisms have radial body symmetry? Make a sketch of radial body symmetry.
    6. What kinds of organisms have bilateral body symmetry? Make a sketch of bilateral body symmetry.
    7. We've spoke about insect body segmentation. What are the three main body segments of an insect?
    8. Cephalization is the presence of a brain. Which types of organisms have cephalization?
    9. In a group, make a deck of 31 playing cards if one has not been made already that you can use. Cut 16 index cards in half. Label each card with information from the Body Plans chart:
      • Names of each animal phylum with a quick sketch (9 cards):
        • Sponges
        • Cnidarians
        • Arthropods
        • Roundworms
        • Flatworms
        • Annelids
        • Mollusks
        • Echinoderms
        • Chordates
      • Examples of the seven body plan features (22 total):
        • No organs
        • Specialized cells, tissues, and organs (3 of these)
        • No body symmetry
        • Radial body symmetry
        • Bilateral body symmetry (3 of these)
        • No body segmentation (3 of these)
        • Body segmentation present (3 of these)
        • Cephalization present (4 of these)
        • No cephalization (2 of these)
    10. When playing, deal out four cards to each group member. Take turns removing a card from the top of the deck and then returning the card from your pile to the bottom of the deck. Students win by matching up four cards that include the name of an animal phylum and three features that correctly describe that phylum's body plan (e.g., having the Sponges card with  No organsNo body symmetry and No cephalization). Try it once using the chart and then play without using the chart. Extra credit to the winners!
    Body Plan Chart: BodyPlans
    Primate Evolution
    Read pp. 634 to 637 and do #1 - 5 on p. 637. Then, in your group, you will make a large poster (17" x 22") showing the "Out of Africa" theory of human evolution. However, instead of using the exact map from the book, I want you to do research on the computer and then create a world map, showing how and when humans migrated to all of the continents in the world. Include detail and pictures, as much as possible!
    Organs and Organ Systems
    1. Fill out the above chart and color appropriately.
    2. Match up the organs with their appropriate organ systems from the table at the bottom.
    3. For each of the following types of tissues, list the organs that contain those tissues: Skeletal Muscle Tissue, Cardiac Muscle Tissue, Smooth Muscle Tissue, Nerve Tissue, Epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue
    Organs Organ Systems
    Ligaments,Veins, Capillaries, Lungs, Stomach, Bones, Bladder, Nerves, Arteries, Blood, Mouth, Large Intestine, Kidneys, Nose, Spinal Cord, Trachea, Small Intestine, Heart, Cartilage, Ureter, Esophagus, Brain, Tendons, Urethra Skeletal System,Circulatory System, Nervous System, Respiratory System, Digestive System, Excretory System
    Biochemistry: The Endocrine System
    Read pp. 810 - 812 in Miller & Levine and do #1 - 5 on p. 812. Additionally, complete pp. 524 - 526 in the Student Study Guide.
    The Reproductive System
    Read pp. 817 to 823 and do #1 - 5 on p. 823. Also, do pp. 529 - 531 in the student workbook.
    The Menstrual Cycle
    Using a one-month calendar and three pencils of different colors, you will make a schedule of the menstrual cycle from p. 821 in Miller & Levine. You will block out the first through the twelfth day with an arrow labeled Follicular Phase. Use a single color to record the follicular ovulation and luteal phases on your calendar. Use a second color to label days on which each hormone reaches its highest level. Use a third color to indicate the days on which menstruation takes place. You should check each other's calendars to check for clarity and accuracy!
    Final Project: Dissection
    For your final project, you will perform a frog (or other animal) dissection. You will need to complete a thorough virtual dissection (www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_16/BL_16.html), then a multi-day actual dissection on the specific animal.

    Frog Dissection Pre- Lab

    Why are we dissecting a frog?

    Frogs and humans are vertebrates and they have very similar organ systems. Although all of the internal organs are not exactly the same, it is helpful to learn about anatomy through dissection. We will be looking at each body system and exploring the individual organs of the frog. We will be making comparisons between the frog and yourself.

    Some individuals argue that dissecting a frog is cruel. Dissection would be a cruel practice if the frogs were mistreated. The frogs that we use in lab for our dissection were bred in Mexico for the sole purpose of scientific study. The companies use a very safe preservative to make the frogs as safe as possible. We still need to wear gloves and wash our hands while working with the frogs.

    Computers can be used to simulate a dissection. This method is very popular with some students. I do not believe that the computer experience is anywhere near as valuable as the actual dissection. But, I do think that it is a good tool. We will be going through a ‘Virtual Dissection’ to help prepare for our actual dissection.

    The frogs we use, gave their lives for science. They are ‘Organ Donors’ who would like us to learn more about them (and ourselves). In order to best use this opportunity to learn and show respect for the frog, we must follow all instructions and safety procedures.

    For our safety, we will be wearing gloves and goggles during the dissection. Aprons will be available for students. EVERYBODY must wash their hands before they leave the room. Hair should be tied back. No gum chewing or eating at all.

    Characteristics of amphibians

    Because their eggs are not in a shell, they must develop in a wet environment. Most amphibians do not have scales. Their skin is thin, smooth, and moist. They do not drink water! Instead, they absorb it through their skin. This is a major reason why most amphibians prefer to live in damp environments (or near water). Amphibians can breath through their lungs or through their skin.

    Ecological Indicators

    Amphibians are often called ecological indicators. When large numbers of amphibians begin to die or show deformities, this may indicate a problem with the environment. Sometimes deformities are caused by other living organisms. They are good ecological indicator because their skin is responsible for gas and water exchanges- and thus they are extremely sensitive to changes in air and water quality.

    1.Frogs are amphibians, and do not drink water. How do frogs get their water?

    2.Why are amphibians considered to be a good ecological indicators?

    Frog Life Cycle

    http://allaboutfrogs.org/weird/general/cycle.html

    Below you will find questions.

    They are organized by section.

    Use the website above to answer.

    3.Spawn (egg-mass). Describe how a male frog fertilizes eggs.

    4.Egg. Frogs lay thousands of eggs at a time because most will not survive. Roughly 5% of all egg laid, even hatch. How long does a tadpole egg take to hatch (on average)?

    5.Tadpole. Tadpoles are born with gills, and spend ALL of their time in the water. How long before the gills start getting grown over (and covered) by skin?

    6.Tadpole with Legs. When do legs start to sprout?

    7.Young Frog. This life stage looks just like frog, but still have a tail. How many weeks old is a frog in this stage?

    8.Frog. How long does it take a frog to fully develop from tadpole to frog?

    9.Frog. What other factors can influence the grow rate of frogs?

    Virtual Frog Dissection

    http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_16/BL_16.html

    Below you will find questions.

    They are organized by section.

    Use the website above to answer.

    Introduction

    10.Why Dissect. Why are frogs a good model to use when studying the digestive system (as well as other systems)?

    11.Natural History. Frogs and humans are both vertebrates. What does this mean they both have?

    12.Dissection Tools. What are the probe and scissors used for?

    Click on Menu on the bottom at the bottom of the page when you are ready to move on to the next section

    External Anatomy

    13.Orientation. Is it possible to tell if a frog is male or female by external appearance?

    14.Skin. What does the mucus do for the skin?

    15.Head. Where are the tympanic membranes (eardrums)? Do frogs have a pinna?

    16.Cloaca. What materials would pass through a cloaca.

    17.Legs. How many hind leg toes does a frog have?

    Click on Menu on the bottom at the bottom of the page when you are ready to move on to the next section

    Internal Anatomy

    18.The Initial Cut. Are you suppose to push the pins in at an angle or straight down? What is the benefit of pushing the pins in this way?

    19.The Initial Cut. Describe the first cut you will be making. Include where you will be cutting and how deep.

    20.The Initial Cut. Why are there so many blood vessels in between the skin and muscle layers?

    21.Digestive System. Which organ is the pancreas located closest to?

    22.Digestive System. The movie asks you to remove the intestines. What other organ(s) is/are removed with the intestines when you click on the tweezers?

    23.Respiratory System. What does the skin do in frogs that it does not do in humans?

    24.Respiratory System. Where are the lungs located in a frog (relative to the heart)?

    25.Circulatory (Cardiovascular) System. How many chambers does a frogs heart have?

    26.Circulatory (Cardiovascular) System What is a frogs heart missing when compared to a humans (what chamber)?

    27.Circulatory (Cardiovascular) System Why is the three chambered heart not as efficient as a four chambered heart?

    28.Reproductive System. In your own words, describe where are the testes located?

    29.Reproductive System In your own words, describe where are the ovaries located?

    30.Excretory System. What happens to blood that enters the kidneys?

    31.Excretory System What organ connects the kidneys to the (urinary) bladder?

    32.Nervous System. This video is long, and parts without sound. Please watch patiently. What makes up a frogs nervous system?

    33.Muscular System. Which part of the body are frog’s muscles in the upper leg responsible for moving?

    34.Skeletal System. How many bones are found in the axial region?

    35.Skeletal System. How many bones are found in the appendicular?

    Follow-up.

    After you are done with the website portion of this pre-lab, complete the following questions:

    36.What is the purpose of this lab?

    37.What lab safety guidelines will be practiced during this lab?

    1. 38.Sketch the pattern of where you should cut to make the first incision on your frog. Draw directly on the picture to the right.

    When you are finished with the WebQuest here is a list of places to visit/things to do:

    1. 1.Take the Pre-Lab quiz below.

      https://spreadsheets.google.com/viewform?hl=en&formkey=dHg1ZzV1OG1wUzdFOC1rRno4cmZ2NkE6MQ#gid=0

    You must pass this with a score of 85% or better in order to do the dissection. No notes are allowed. This will count as a grade.

    1. 2.When you are done with the quiz, visit these additional sites for virtual frog dissections. When going through the dissections think about how they compare to the one we just went through.

    http://www.froguts.com

    http://frog.edschool.virginia.edu/

    After you have completed #1 and #2 above, you may choose which of the following to do in any order you want. I have ranked them based on the quality of the site, and how much I think you will enjoy them (highest to lowest). Some links (teachertube.com) will require you to watch a short ad before viewing the video.

    1.Teacher guided video of a dissection of a rat. Good site. Awesome accent. http://www1.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=101109

    2.Colossal Squid. Here you can view virtual info as well as real photos and videos. http://squid.tepapa.govt.nz/anatomy/interactive

    3.Digital Videos webpage. This page has video of dissection of sheep brain, frog heart, and crayfish brain. *WARNING* These videos are of live frogs being dissected. If you feel this will disturb you, then do NOT watch. This site is totally optional. http://www.wellesley.edu/Biology/Concepts/Html/digitalvideos.html

    4.Pig Heart dissection video. This aussie guides you through the dissection of a pig heart. There is blood in this video. Great review of the heart, and its chambers. http://www1.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=60969

    5.Sheep eye dissection video. A little far away from video to see anything great, but good commentary. Too bad his class wont be quiet! http://www1.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=145439

    6.Frog Dissection Video. Long video, but great step-by-step for what to expect when dissecting a frog. No Audio. http://www1.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=155411&title=Frog_Dissection_Instructions

    7.Fetal Pig dissection pictures. This page contains photos that are labeled with the organs they are showing. http://www.execulink.com/~ekimmel/fetal0.htm

    8.Rat dissection pictures. http://www.k-state.edu/organismic/rat_dissection.htm

    9.Salmon Virtual dissection. This site is cheesy, but you may enjoy it if you like cheese. http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00548/Dissection.html

    10.Perch dissection pictures. This site contains a few pictures of the internal organs of male and female perch (fish). http://www.bio200.buffalo.edu/labs/tutor/Perch/Perch.html