OGT Blitz

Review questions and activities for the OGT


Vocabulary

For each of the groups of words that are assigned to you, choose one of the following to do:

  1. Make a Mini-Book with 8 pages (directions are on Foldables: Page 1)
    1. Write each word at the top of the page
    2. Below the word, write a definition in your own words
    3. On the same page, draw a picture that uses it
  2. Make two Four Doors (directions are on Foldables: Page 3)
    1. Write the word on the outside
    2. Inside, write a definition in your own words on the top flap
    3. Draw a picture that uses it on the bottom flap
  3. Make 8 flash cards, directions below:
    1. Top Right Corner: Write the word’s definition in your own words
    2. Top Left Corner: Write the word’s opposite and cross it out
    3. Lower Left Corner: Write a silly sentence that uses the definition of the word
    4. Lower Right Corner: Draw a graphic to help you visualize the concept
    5. In the Center: Write the word

For each group of words, study them for at least ten minutes. Go on http://quizlet.com/ and add at least two of the words from this group to one of your sets of flashcards. You should add any words that you are having trouble remembering. By the time you are finished with all of the vocabulary, you should have at least 20 words on quizlet.com!

Keep all of your lists together in a folder or some other container. Once you’re done with Vocabulary, Pro-OHIO and Test Skills, every time you help someone study their vocabulary for at least ten minutes, you can fill out a “Helping Out” sheet for extra credit.

Life

Group 1
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
Unicellular
Multicellular

DNA
Organelle
Organic molecule
Cell

Group 6
Homozygous
Heterozygous
Dominant
Recessive
Hybrid
Genotype
Phenotype
Independent Assortment
Group 10
Advantaged Offspring
Advantageous Characteristics
Natural Selection
Genetic Variation
Habitat
Gene Frequency
Genetic Drift
Adaptive Radiation
Group 2
Asexual Reproduction
Homeostasis
Tissues
Organs
Organ Systems
Zygote
Sexual reproduction
Body Cell
Group 7
Gene
Base
Allele
Chromosome
Mutation
Haploid
Diploid
Homologous Chromosomes
Group 11
Fossil
Habitat
Niche
Gamete
Fossilization
Radiometric Dating
Immigration
Emigration
Group 3
Mitochondria
Chloroplast
Flagella
Cell Wall
Ribosome
Cell Membrane
Cilia
Nucleic Acid
Group 8
Photosynthesis
Chemosynthesis
Fermentation
Respiration
Aerobic
Anaerobic
Food Web
Food Chain
Group 12
Biotic
Abiotic
Competition
Commensalism
Mutualism
Predation
Parasitism
Symbiosis
Group 4
Interphase
Cell Differentiation
Meiosis
Mitosis
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Group 9
Diversity
Adaptation
Decomposer
Producer
Primary Consumer
Secondary Consumer
Tertiary Consumer
Energy Pyramid
Group 13
Bacteria
Organism
Community
Fungi
Protist
Monera
Biome
Germ
Group 5
Amino Acid
mRNA
Transcription
Translation
Substitution
Deletion
Insertion
Protein Synthesis

Earth & Space

Group 14
Big Bang
Asteroid
Comet
Element
Molecule
Particle
Reaction
Star
Group 16
Biogeochemical Cycle
Equilibrium
Carbon Cycle
Carrying Capacity
Deciduous Forest
Extinction
Fossil Fuel
Resource
Group 18
Lithosphere
Hydrosphere
Atmosphere
Faulting
Folding
Landform
Sea-Floor Spreading
Earthquake
Group 15
Ozone
Precipitation
Air Mass
Hurricane
Climate
Lake Effect Snow
Water Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
Group 17
Agriculture
Non-sustainable Agriculture
Continental Drift
Plate Tectonics
Pioneer
Recycle
Sustainable agriculture
Urban growth
Group 19
Extrusive
Intrusive
Magma
Metamorphic
Geological Time Scale
Igneous
Radiometric Dating
Hardness

General Science

Group 20
Hypothesis
Data
Conclusion
Theory
Procedures
Observation
Variable
Control
Group 22
Mass
MSDS
Material
pH Scale
Volume
Net force
Weight
Triple Beam Balance
Group 24
Stem Cells
Cloning
GM Food
Nanotechnology
Biotechnology
Sex-linked trait
Evolution
Virus
Group 21
Peer review
Bias
Ethics
Evidence
Informed Consent
Phenomenon
Experiment
Control group
Group 23
Hierarchy
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Physical Science

Group 25
Atom
Proton
Neutron
Electron
Isotope
Subatomic
Atomic number
Ion
Group 28
Nonmetal
Alloy
Brittle
Ceramic
Chemical change
Metal
Chemical Property
Metalloid
Group 31
Velocity
Acceleration
Speed
Gravity
Vibration
Newton’s 1st Law
Newton’s 2nd Law
Newton’s 3rd Law
Group 26
Endothermic
Exothermic
Ionic Bond
Covalent Bond
Mixture
Compound
Acid
Base
Group 29
Malleable
Conduction
Convection
Electricity
Dissipate
Medium
Ductile
Density
Group 32
Potential Energy
Kinetic Energy
Fusion
Fission
Chain Reaction
Thermal energy
Nuclear energy
Friction
Group 27
Liquid
Solid
Gas
Dissolve
Absorb
Mixture
Physical Change
Physical Property
Group 30
Semiconductor
Superconductor
Temperature
Random motion
Unbalanced charge
Unbalanced force
Force
Reflection
Group 33
Visible light
Wave
Wavelength
X-Rays
UV Rays
EM Radiation
Infrared
Microwaves

Test Skills: Short Answer

What’s this all about?

There are four graded short answer questions on the OGT. Each one is worth 2 points.

What should I remember?

  1. You are only graded on what you have correct, so write down as much as you can within the box!
  2. Spelling and grammar do not count, as long as the person who’s reading your answers can understand them.
  3. Write down at least three different statements answering the question.

Try it out with some corn!

Before you answer the question, make sure you understand it:

1. What does an agricultural scientist do?

2. What is a fertilizer?

3. What does the corn plant need in order to grow?

4. The independent variable is what is changed by the person doing the experiment. What is the independent variable in this experiment?

5. The dependent variable changes in response to the independent variable. What is the dependent variable?

6. In general, what is a control in an experiment?

7. Why is it important to have a control in an experiment?

Now, answer the short answer question:

8. What is an appropriate control that can be used to determine whether the fertilizer affects the growth of the corn plants?

9. Why is it important to include this control?

10. Good short answer responses have two sentences in response to the question and a final statement in summary. Summarize your response to the question in order to complete your answer.

Test Skills: Extended Response

What’s this all about?

There are two graded extended response questions on the OGT. Each one is worth 4 points.

What should I remember?

  1. You are only graded on what you have correct, so write down as much as you can within the box!
  2. Spelling and grammar do not count, as long as the person who’s reading your answers can understand them.
  3. Write down at least five different statements answering the question.

Try it out with the tropical rainforest!

Before you answer the question, make sure you understand it:

1. Where can tropical rainforests be found?

2. Why would rainforests be cut down for farming?

3. What wood products would tropical rainforests be used for?

4. What do tropical rainforests do for us?

5. How quickly do rainforests grow, compared with how quickly they are cut down?

Now, answer the extended response question:

6. What is one environmental consequence of rainforest destruction?

7. Explain the negative environmental impact of this consequence.

8. What is a second environmental consequence of rainforest destruction?

9. Explain the negative environmental impact of this second consequence.

10. Good extended responses have four total sentences in response to the question and a final statement in summary. Summarize your response to the question in order to complete your answer.

Test Skills: Graphs

What’s this all about?

There is always at least one graph on the OGT that you need to be able to read, and answer questions about.

What should I remember?

  1. Don’t worry if you don’t understand what the graph is talking about. They’re testing to see if you can use the information, not if you already know it.
  2. The dependent variable is often on the y-axis (up and down), the independent variable is often on the x-axis (side to side). Always look at the x-axis first (the bottom).
  3. Most graphs have more information inside. Look for a legend or key to help you figure out what’s going on.

Try it out with Biomes!


1. What is shown in this graph?

2. What is the value on the x-axis?

3. What is the value on the y-axis?

4. What third piece of information is shown inside the diagram?

5. Which biome (or letter) shows the lowest annual temperature?

6. Which biome (or letter) shows the highest annual precipitation?

7. What is the temperature range (minimum to maximum) of the temperate forest?

8. What is the range (minimum to maximum) of precipitation for the coniferous forest?

9. Deserts are consistently the driest biomes in North America. They consistently receive very little precipitation but have a wide variation in mean annual temperature. Which letter for a biome likely represents the deserts?

10. Locate biome W and the temperate forest on the graph. Based on the information provided, describe one similarity and one difference between both the temperature and precipitation of these two biomes. Respond as 4-point extended response question.

Test Skills: Tables

What’s this all about?

Scientists love to present information in tables. There is always one table of information on the OGT that you need to be able to answer questions about.

What should I remember?

  1. Don’t worry if you don’t understand what the table is talking about. They’re testing to see if you can use the information, not if you already know it.
  2. The independent variable is usually on the left hand side and the dependent variables are on the right. Always look at the left side first.
  3. Most tables on the OGT show a pattern. Look for the patterns first when answering the questions.

Try it out with the speed of sound!

1. What are the three pieces of information available in this table?

2. What is density?

3. What is speed?

4. What is the density of glass? Include units.

5. What is the speed of sound in brick? Include units.

6. Which two substances have the lowest and highest densities?

7. Which two substances have the slowest and fastest speed of sound?

8. What is the relationship between density and the speed of sound?

9. Air has a density of about 0.001 g/cm3. Predict about what the speed of sound is in air, in m/s.

10. Choose another substance that you are familiar with. What is this substance? Where do you think it be placed in this table? Be specific, stating the substance it would be after and the substance it would be before. Justify your response by giving a reason why you think this is correct. Predict the approximate density of the substance you chose.  Respond as a 4-point extended response question.

Test Skills: Charts

What’s this all about?

There is often a chart on the OGT that you need to use in order to answer questions.

What should I remember?

  1. Charts come in a variety of types: bar, pie, 3-D, even the Periodic Table of the Elements is a chart. Don’t be thrown off by how the information is presented.
  2. Size can be the most important part of a chart. The size always represents how many there are of a particular thing.
  3. Data is also represented by shading on a chart. Look for the legend or key so that you understand what the shading means.

Try it out with some geology!

1. What information does this chart show?

2. Which layer probably took the longest amount of time to form?

3. Which layer was formed most recently?

4. Which layer was formed the longest time ago?

5. Did glaciers move through this area? How do you know?

6. Did Glossopteris live before or after the glaciers receded? How do you know?

7. In other areas near to the one in the chart, a layer of feldspar was found on top of the sandstone, and no basalt lava was present. Give an explanation as to why this area shows no feldspar.

8. What kind of fuel is coal?

9. How did coal get inside the shale?

10. What two pieces of information can scientists get about living things by studying charts like this? Explain how each of these pieces of information can be used in the mining industry. Respond as a 4-point extended response question.

Test Skills: Passages

What’s this all about?

There is always at least one written passage on the OGT that you need to read and understand in order to answer questions.

What should I remember?

  1. Passages are often meant to be difficult to read. Don’t expect to understand everything when you read it.
  2. Use the questions that follow the passage to help you understand the passage. Some people even read the questions first, but don’t forget to read the whole passage afterwards!
  3. Passages often use names or words you have never heard before. This doesn’t mean that you can’t figure out what’s going on.

Try it out with an experiment!

Ethics Review Board

A university student wants to perform an experiment using mice as test subjects. The procedure would require the mice to be injected with a specific bacterial infection and then treated with an antibiotic. Their response to the treatment would be observed and recorded.

1. What is a bacterial infection that you are familiar with?

2. What does an antibiotic do?

3. Why would mice be injected with a bacterial infection?

4. How could this benefit humans?

5. Come up with an alternative to using mice for this experiment.

6. In general, what are ethics?

7. Is this experiment ethical, in your opinion? Why or why not?

8. What does an ethics review board do? Use context clues to figure this out.

9. What are two possible outcomes for the proposed experiment?

10. What are two questions that an ethics review board would ask about this experiment, and explain why it is important that each question be asked before starting the experiment. Answer as a 4-point extended response question.

Test Skills: Interpreting Data

What’s this all about?

On the OGT, you’ll find tables, charts, graphs, diagrams and other ways of representing data. You need to be able to use the data to answer questions.

What should I remember?

  1. Look for hints, like units. Knowing something is “cm” means that it is a measure of length. If it says “liters” then you’re dealing with volume.
  2. Look for the biggest and smallest values. Usually, they’re the most interesting parts of the data and the ones that they want you to pay attention to.
  3. Look for a legend or a key that tells you what symbols or shades mean.

Try it out!

1. What are the units for the independent variable?

2. What do the units for the independent variable tell you?

3. What are the units for the dependent variable?

4. What do the units for the dependent variable tell you?

5. What kind of line represents the P-waves? The S-waves?

6. What is the biggest and smallest velocity for the P-wave?

7. What is the biggest and smallest velocity for the S-wave?

8. What seem to be the most important depths on this graph to pay attention to?

9. What wave, depth and velocity is represented by point B?

10. This graph represents data taken from hundreds of different places across the Earth. When an earthquake happens,what two types of waves are produced? At a certain depth, a type of wave does not get transmitted. What wave and depth is that, and what part of the Earth does not transmit these types of waves? Answer as a 4-point extended response question.

Test Skills: Units

What’s this all about?

Data on the OGT is usually presented with units, and knowing how units work helps you eliminate incorrect choices.

What should I remember?

  1. You don’t need to understand what “m/s2” or other units mean, you just need to know if it’s the correct unit or not!
  2. Memorize:
    1. m = meter, cm = centimeter, mm = millimeter, km = kilometer
    2. L = liter, mL (or ml) = milliliter
    3. in = inch, ft = foot/feet, mi = miles
    4. s or sec = seconds, min = minutes, h or hr = hours
    5. N = Newtons (a measure of force), lb = pound
  3. Remember that one mL of water is equal to one cm3

Try it out with an Inclined Plane!

Inclined Plane Experiment

  1. What is the weight of the block on the inclined plane?
  2. At what time is the box released down the inclined plane?
  3. How tall is the inclined plane?
  4. Over the course of the experiment, how far down does the box drop?
  5. Over the course of the experiment, how far does the box travel from left to right?
  6. At what time does the box have the greatest kinetic energy?
  7. Where is the potential energy of the box the greatest?
  8. Choose the correct answer: The weight of the box is a measure of the
    1. Velocity of the box while sliding
    2. Friction between air and the box
    3. Kinetic energy at the top of the incline
    4. Force acting on the box due to gravity
  9. Calculate the average velocity of the box assuming that the distance traveled in “D” is 6.25 m.
  10. The above experiment was done with little to no friction. Assume that the experiment was repeated in less “ideal” conditions where the effects of friction on the box cannot be ignored. Predict the effect that significant friction would have on the acceleration of the box as it slides down the incline and explain the cause of the predicted effect. Why would scientists ignore friction? Give an example of a surface that has little to no friction. Answer as a 4-point extended response question.

Test Skills: Experiments

What’s this all about?

There is often an experiment that is presented to you on the OGT. You are told how the experiment is done and often the results of the experiment.

What should I remember?

  1. Read for the control and variables. The control is what is kept the same, and the variables are what change.
  2. Look for data (results) in the experiment. The data is often the clue to the most important information in the experiment.
  3. Ignore extra information in the experiment. There is usually more information included than you need in order to answer the questions.

Try it out with some soap!

1. What is the independent variable in this experiment?

2. What is controlled in the experiment?

3. What are the results of the experiment?

4. How are the two bars of soap different from each other?

5. How are the four unknown liquids different from each other?

6. Which beaker contains the densest liquid? Why?

7. Which beaker contains the least dense liquid? Why?

8. Which bar of soap is more dense than the other: the light or the dark bar?

9. What is the scientific formula for density?

10. Suppose that Gertrude cut a third bar of soap that had a density in between that of the light and the dark bar of soap. Where would this third bar of soap sit in each one of the four beakers? Include details for each of the four beakers, W, X, Y and Z. Answer as a 4-point extended response question.

Test Skills: Diagrams

What’s this all about?

There are all sorts of diagrams that are used on the OGT that you are expected to interpret and answer questions about.

What should I remember?

  1. You will most likely have never seen this diagram, and possibly never this type of diagram. That’s OK.
  2. Information presented in a new type of diagram is simple information, unlike graphs and charts. Try not to make it more complicated than it is!
  3. You already know some types of diagrams: dichotomous keys, pedigrees, Earth’s seasons, layers of the Earth, etc. They may not look exactly the same, but the information in the diagram is the same.

Try it out on a pedigree!

1. How many generations of individuals are represented in this pedigree?

2. How many individuals are in the second generation?

3. How many females are in the third generation?

4. How many affected females are present in the pedigree?

5. How many children do the individuals in the first generation have?

6. How many carrier males are present in the pedigree?

7. How many brothers and sisters does individual X have?

8. This pedigree is for sickle cell anemia. Person W and his wife are considering having another child. What is the percent chance that this child will develop sickle cell disease?

9. Which labeled person could not pass sickle cell anemia on to their offspring?

10. Draw a Punnett square for the couple in the first generation of the pedigree. Use B to represent the allele for normal red blood cells and b to represent the allele for sickle cell anemia. How do the couple’s actual children compare with the expected results? Respond as you would for a 4-point extended response question.

Topic Skill: Scientific Inquiry

  1. About how long does it take to collect 50 mL of oxygen at 40 degrees Celsius?
  2. At what temperature does it take 20 minutes to collect 50 mL of Oxygen?
  3. Explain the difference between a control, independent variable and dependent variable.
  4. Using the chart above, explain the relationship between the temperature and the amount of time it takes to collect 50 mL of oxygen. Answer as a 2-point short answer question.

Topic Skill: Atomic Structure

  1. For the atom above, what is the mass of this atom?
  2. How many total electrons are there? Is this atom positive, negative or neutral? How do you know?
  3. Using the drawing above and a periodic table, describe which element that you think this drawing represents and explain why as a 2-point short answer question.
  4. Draw the Lewis dot diagram for this atom and explain where each subatomic particle is found in the atom: protons, neutrons and electrons. Answer as a 4-point extended response question.

Topic Skill: Mixtures, Solutions, Acids, Bases

Substance # Color on litmus paper Observations of substance
1 Pink Liquid that looks goopy and red
2 Blue Liquid that smells like bleach
3 Blue-Green White, powdery substance collects at bottom of liquid
4 Pink White, powdery substance collects at bottom of liquid
5 No change Liquid with no smell, no color
  1. From the table above, how many acids and how many bases do you think there are?
  2. Sodium bicarbonate is a solid substance that neutralizes weak acids. Which of the above substances could be sodium bicarbonate?
  3. Using the table above, make a hypothesis as to what you think substance #5 could be.
  4. Explain which substances you think are mixtures and which are solutions, and why! Answer as a 2-point short answer question.

Topic Skill: Formation of Energy and Transformations

Item used Activity
Bicycle Pushing pedals
Furnace Burning oil or gas
Toaster Toasting bread
Lamp Reading book
Bus Riding to school
Thermometer Taking a temperature
  1. Which of the above activities involves the transformation of electrical energy into light energy?
  2. What is the energy transformation that happens in a furnace? Explain your answer in terms of different types of energy.
  3. Using the table above, explain how electricity can be converted into more than one other form of energy.
  4. Identify two energy transformations that happen in a car, truck or bus and describe both the initial and final form of energy. Answer as a 4-point extended response question.

Topic Skill: Fission and Fusion

  1. Does this represent the splitting or does it represent the combining of atoms?
  2. When a neutron hits an atom of Uranium-238, what is produced?
  3. How does a chain reaction work? Explain using an example.
  4. Using the diagram above and your own knowledge of fusion, explain one difference and one similarity between fission and fusion. Answer as a 2-point short answer question.

 

Topic Skill: Gravity and Friction

  1. How far has the pool ball traveled after 4 seconds?
  2. How much time does it take the pool ball to travel 200 meters?
  3. Using the diagram above, explain why the ball falls from the building the way it does.
  4. Explain why the ball changes its behavior from 0 seconds to 4 seconds, to its behavior after four seconds, in terms of gravity and friction. Answer as a 2-point short answer question.

Topic Skill: Speed, Velocity and Acceleration

  1. What is the average speed of the pool ball between four and six seconds after being dropped?
  2. What is the average velocity of the pool ball between 300 m and 400 m?
  3. Using the diagram above, is the pool ball accelerating between 4 and 10 seconds? Explain.
  4. Is the pool ball moving any quicker between 9 and 10 seconds than between 1 and 2 seconds? Why or why not? Answer as a 2-point short answer question.

Topic Skill: Newton’s Laws

Example Acceleration (meters/second/second) Force (N) Mass (kg)
1 1 1 1
2 2 20 10
3 1 10 10
4 1 20 20
5 0.5 10 20
6 2 ? 50

This table demonstrates how Force = Mass x Acceleration.

  1. Which two examples from above show how when mass doubles and acceleration stays the same, force doubles?
  2. What is the force for example #6?
  3. Using the table above, explain what would happen to the force of something if you doubled its acceleration while reducing its mass by half.
  4. Force = Mass x Acceleration is a way to state Newton’s Second Law. In your own words, explain one of Newton’s other laws.

Topic Skill: Biomes and Ecosystems

This climograph shows the temperature and precipitation data for Columbus, OH.

    1. Which month has the highest average temperature? What is the temperature?
    2. Which months average 7cm of precipitation?
    3. Using the diagram above, explain which months are considered the three winter months in Columbus.
    4. In terms of temperature and precipitation, how would you describe summers and winters in Columbus?

    Topic Skill: Relationships and Ecosystems

    Lions are on the bottom line, zebras on the top line

    1. In what years was the lion population greater than the zebra population?
    2. About how many zebra were there in 1920? How many lions?
    3. Using the chart above and the graphical organizer below, explain why the zebra population declined between 1900 and 1930.
    4. What would you expect to happen in this ecosystem between 2000 and 2020? Why?

    Topic Skill: Stars

    According to some theories, Earth’s sun is approximately 5 billion years old. After about 10 billion years, this type of star runs out of fuel. The hydrogen in the core becomes depleted and cannot be fused to form helium. The graphs below illustrate the chemical changes that occur inside a star at specific times.

    1. Explain what is meant by the information represented on the x-axis and the dotted line.
    2. Explain what is meant by the information represented on the y-axis.
    3. What is the difference in the meaning of the three graphs above?
    4. Describe, as a short answer question, what happens to a star as it ages from birth to 10 billion years.

    Topic Skill: Evolution

    The following diagram is found in an evolutionary biology textbook.  This represents the relationship between different organisms, over time.1. What does the y-axis of this diagram represent?

    2. If this diagram were filled in, what might you find at the end of each of the branches?

    3. Where would you find the organisms that went extinct the longest time ago?

    4. In a three-sentence paragraph, describe the information that you can get out of a diagram like this.

    Topic Skill: Technology & Society

    In a recent agricultural experiment, farmers in Japan inserted fertilized watermelon blooms into square containers, which resulted in the fruit taking the shape of its container as it grew.

    1. Why did the farmers use clear containers?

    2. What is the purpose of making square watermelons?  In other words, why might they be useful for people?

    3. Is this an example of society affecting technology or technology affecting society?  Explain.

    4. Identify another crop that might be more convenient if technology were applied to it.  Explain your idea and how it would benefit society.