Extended Responses

Extended response questions for the final 2-week review


Extended Response: Wildcard 1

Some strains of laboratory mice have been inbred for many generations, resulting in large numbers of mice with nearly identical genetic makeup. Explain an advantage of using these mice in designing an experiment to test the effects of a new drug. Compare this to a test using mice with varied genetic makeup. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

Extended Reponse: Wildcard 2

A university student wants to perform an experiment using mice as test subjects. The procedure would require the mice to be injected with a specific bacterial infection and then treated with an antibiotic. Their response to the treatment would be observed and recorded. Provide two questions that an ethics review board would raise regarding the proposed work. For each question, explain why it is important that the question be answered prior to granting permission for the experiment. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (4 points)

Extended Response: Wildcard 3

In a recent agricultural experiment, farmers in Japan inserted fertilized watermelon blooms into square containers, which resulted in the fruit taking the shape of its container as it grew.

Describe two benefits of farming practices that produce square watermelons.

Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

Extended Response: PS-G

A group of students in Ohio conducted an investigation during the month of January to study the effects of solar warming. The students used a wooden box painted white. The box was mounted on a post in an open area and a thermometer was fastened on each of the four sides. The box was oriented so that each thermometer faced squarely in a different direction: north, south, east or west. The temperature on each thermometer was recorded in degrees Fahrenheit at 12:00 noon during five consecutive days of clear skies.

The picture shows the apparatus used by the students.

The table shows the data collected by the students.

When designing the investigation, one student suggested painting the wooden box black. Predict how painting the box black would affect the temperature readings from the four thermometers. Explain your reasoning.

Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

Extended Response: LS-E

Most bacteria reproduce asexually. Mammals reproduce sexually. Describe how these two methods of reproduction differ with respect to the genetic makeup of the offspring produced.

Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

Extended Response: PS-B

A teacher gives a student a non-toxic, odorless, white powder to identify. Generate four questions, each regarding a different property of the unknown powder, that could be safely tested and answered in the laboratory.

Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (4 points)

Extended Response: ES-B

State two factors and explain how each influences the weather in Ohio.

Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (4 points)

Extended Response: ES-A

Companies seeking new drug approval are required to conduct clinical trials involving human volunteers. During these trials, people with the disease are separated into different groups. One group receives a placebo (an inert or harmless substance used in controlled experiments). Each of the remaining groups receives a different dose of the drug (i.e., Group A receives a 30 mg dose once a day, Group B receives a 50 mg dose once a day, etc.).

Describe two reasons for testing new drugs at varying doses.

Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

Extended Response: ES-E

A study is planned to investigate the potential environmental impact of storing animal wastes in large, open lagoons on commercially owned farms. These lagoons sometimes rupture or overflow, spilling their contents into lakes and waterways.

Identify one negative consequence of increased animal waste in lakes and waterways and describe how the increased animal waste results in this consequence.

Then identify a second negative consequence of increased animal waste in lakes and waterways and describe how the increased animal waste results in this consequence. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (4 points)

Extended Response: PS-F

In 1960, physicist Theodore Maiman constructed the first working laser. This design was improved upon by Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1961. Since then, lasers have been found to have a wide variety of applications. Identify one application of laser technology and explain how this application has impacted society. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

Extended Response: LS-I

An agricultural scientist wants to determine the effect of fertilizers on corn plant growth. She selects a fertilizer to treat a soil plot where corn seeds have just sprouted. Describe an appropriate control she could use to determine whether the fertilizer affects growth of the corn plants. Explain why it is important to include this control. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

Extended Response: ES-C

Scientists have written computer programs to model populations of organisms within ecosystems. By changing initial numbers of individuals and survival rates, these programs can simulate what will happen to members of the ecosystem over time.

Explain how computer modeling could be valuable to an ecologist studying a forest ecosystem. Speculate on why this type of data can only be gained by using a computer program. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

Extended Response: PS-E

In doing the following inclined plane experiment in “ideal conditions,” students assume that friction from the air, incline or floor is negligible. A stationary box at the top of a frictionless incline is released and is allowed to slide to the bottom. The figure below illustrates the box in four positions labeled A through D as it is sliding from the incline onto the level floor. As the box moves from the bottom of the incline to the floor, students assume that the box experiences no change in speed, only a change in direction.

Assume that the experiment will be repeated in less “ideal” conditions where the effects of friction on the motion of the box cannot be ignored. Predict the effect that significant friction would have on the acceleration of the box as it slides down the incline. Explain the cause of the predicted effect. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

Extended Response: LS-G

The following graph shows the ranges of temperature and precipitation for six American biomes, two of which are identified by name.

Locate biome W and the temperate forest on the graph. Based on the information provided, describe one similarity and one difference between the climates of these two biomes. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

Extended Response: LS-C

Sickle cell disease is a group of inherited disorders in which deoxygenated red blood cells become distorted and take on a shape like a sickle. There are two common alleles for this gene. One causes normally shaped red blood cells and the other allele causes the red blood cells to have a sickle shape. The sickled cells can lodge in the smallest blood vessels and reduce the circulation of blood to tissues.

The sickle cell allele is most common in areas where the disease malaria is a significant problem, and among people whose ancestors are from those areas. Evidence shows that having just one sickle cell allele makes a person resistant to malaria.

This genetic condition is a recessive trait. When an individual has only one allele for the sickle cell trait, the person is a carrier.

The pedigree below represents a family in which some members have the sickle cell allele.

Draw a Punnett square or comparable diagram for the couple in the first generation of the pedigree. Use B to represent the allele for normal red blood cells and b to represent the allele for sickle cell disease. How do the couple’s actual children compare to the expected results shown in your Punnett square? Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (4 points)

Extended Response: LS-A

A medical researcher is investigating immune response in patients exposed to a specific pathogen. The graph below shows the concentration of a particular antibody in the bloodstream produced during the process of acquired immunity. One curve shows the primary immune response (after the first exposure to the pathogen), and the other curve shows the secondary immune response (after the second exposure to the pathogen).

A vaccination serves as the first exposure to a pathogen and triggers the body’s primary immune response. Some vaccines contain weakened or inactive pathogens. Other vaccines contain highly similar but nonpathogenic forms.

Describe two benefits of receiving a vaccine, such as the polio vaccine, in protecting the body against disease, and include data from the graph to support each benefit. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (4 points)

Extended Response: LS-B

Phytoplankton are microscopic aquatic algae capable of photosynthesis.

The rate at which light energy is converted to organic compounds by the photosynthetic organisms of an ecosystem is called productivity. Scientists have developed a method to determine the productivity of phytoplankton in an aquatic habitat using the following steps.

Method to Determine Productivity

  1. Two bottles, one transparent and one opaque, are filled with equal volumes of water containing phytoplankton from the same depth of a lake.
  2. Initial measurements of the concentrations of various dissolved gases for each bottle are determined from a separate water sample taken from the same depth.
  3. The two filled bottles are sealed and suspended in the water for 24 hours.
  4. After 24 hours, the concentrations of various dissolved gases in each bottle are measured and compared to the initial measurements of dissolved gases.

    The diagram below shows the device used in the “Method to Determine Productivity.”

A scientist applies the method described in the passage to examine phytoplankton productivity in two ponds of similar size and depth. He observes that the final oxygen concentration values for pond 1 are lower than those for pond 2.

Identify a condition within pond 1 that could account for the lower oxygen concentration values. Explain why this condition affects the oxygen concentration values. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)

Extended Response: PS-A

Use the partial periodic table to answer the question.

In terms of electrons, describe the difference between the formation of the covalent bond in Cl2 and the ionic bond in NaCl. Respond in the space provided in your Answer Document. (2 points)