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"I" Statements

Students often feel an emotion because of a situation brought on by another student. This activity is meant to help you figure out ways to get out of a conflict that could result in bigger problems. Practice cooling down by trying a couple examples:

I feel

      _____________________________________________________________

(frustrated, embarrassed, insulted, worried, sad, etc.)

when _____________________________________________________________

(explain a specific situation)

because ___________________________________________________________

Write an “I” statement for each problem:

You loan a library book to your friend and they lose it I __________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________

Your best friend shows your boy/girlfriend a note you wrote about them I __________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________

The student next to you looks at your work during a test and gets you into trouble I __________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________

Your mother makes you wash the dishes, which makes you late for something you wanted to do I __________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________

Your teacher always calls you by a name that you don’t like to be called. I __________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________

The student who sits behind you in class distracts you by tapping your chair and throwing things at you. I __________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________

A-Mazing Plants

Most plants depend on sunlight to provide energy through photosynthesis. Many plants have adaptations that help them maximize, or take full advantage of, their exposure to the sun. Perhaps you have noticed a plant at home that seems to reach toward the light. If you moved that plant to a new location, you may have seen it grow in a different direction to capture more light in the new spot. This process is called phototropism.

Materials

  • paper cup
  • cardboard shoe box
  • potting soil
  • 2 cardboard dividers
  • 4 bean seeds
  • masking tape
  • scissors

Procedure

In this lab, you will build a maze with a plant on one end and a light source at the other. You will observe the plant over time to see how it responds. To make sure that the plants grow, you will first place the planted seeds in full sun.

  1. Add potting soil to the cup until it is about three-quarters full. Use the tip of a pencil to make four holes about 1 cm deep in the soil. Plant the seeds and cover them with a thin layer of soil.
  2. Water the soil until it is moist. Set the cup near the window.
  3. Cut a hole about 5 cm in diameter at one end of the shoe box. Tape two cardboard dividers inside the box as shown in the diagram. Put the cover on the box and store it in a safe place.
  4. Observe the cup each day. Once the seedlings have broken the surface of the soil, place the cup in the box. Place it at the beginning of the maze, away from the hole. Put the lid on the box. Put the box near the window, with the hole facing the sun.
  5. Over the next 2 weeks, open the box every 2 to 3 days to water and observe the seedlings. CAUTION: Do not remove the cup to water the plants. Record what you observe.

amazingplants

Analyze and Conclude

  1. Summarize what happened to the seedlings.
  2. What stimulus did the seedlings respond to? What was happening within the cells of the plant to cause this response?

Build Science Skills

What adaptive advantage does the growth pattern you observed give a plant? What situation in a natural setting does this activity model?

Adaptive Radiation

Adaptive Radiation

Galapagos finches are often called “Darwin’s finches” because he was the first scientist to try and explain why there were so many different kinds of finches on the Galapagos Islands. He explained that the beaks of the finches were different because of adaptive radiation, when a species of organism adapts to different environments.

  1. How are the beaks of finches that eat mainly insects and mainly seeds different?
  2. According to the diagram, all of these finches began as a type of finch that ate seeds. Why would they start to eat things other than seeds?
  3. Create a map of one of the islands which has a large fruit tree, a cactus, a beach and plants that give off seeds. Place each of the finches on the map, depending on what they eat.
  4. Using your map, why did the one ancestor finch evolve into all of these different descendants?
  5. Think of another example of adaptive radiation, using animals that you are more familiar with.

Adaptive Radiation

For this activity, you will be pretending to be a bird that is trying to get food. The scenario is that you and all of the other “birds” in the class end up on a deserted island. It is a large island, and every “area” (desk) has a different type of food and can support a different number of birds. You are given a choice of “beaks” (tool) and you have to figure out which is the best area for you to settle. You have five minutes to locate an area and a beak that you think will maximize your chance for survival. Try “eating” different seeds with different beaks. At the end of five minutes, we will total up the birds in each area, and make note of the beak that each bird has chosen.

  1. Which area and tool did you choose? Why?
  2. Would you have survived? Why or why not?
  3. What is adaptive radiation?
  4. How did this exercise demonstrate adaptive radiation?
  5. What would have happened if all of the seeds had been the same?
  6. Give an example of adaptive radiation in a living thing that you are familiar with.

Agriculture: Starting Seeds

In this activity, you will be starting the plants from seeds that you want to grow. You will need to find out specific information about each seed, such as:

  • Planting depth
  • Spacing
  • Time of year to start
  • Amount of sunlight needed

Using egg cartons and a mixture of potting soil and soil from the garden, you will start the seeds inside. Make sure to label each seed that you’re starting and that you start about 3 seeds for every one plant that you want to grow.

Alien Periodic Table

Procedure:

You are a part of a collection of scientists who have been chosen to assist a group of alien scientists. In order to be able to converse scientifically, you must learn their language, and most importantly, you must arrange their elements according to the trends that exist in the periodic table. Below are clues for the alien’s elements. So far, the aliens have only discovered elements in groups 1, 2, and 13-18, and periods 1-5. Although the names of the elements are different, they must correspond to our elements if our belief of universal elements holds true. Read each clue carefully, and then place the symbol for that clue’s element in the blank periodic table provided.

Alien Periodic Table

  1. Livium (Lv): This element is responsible for life. It has 2 electron energy levels and 4 electrons available for bonding in the outermost energy level.
  2. Computerchipium (Cc): This element is important for its use as a semiconductor in computers.
  3. Lightium (L): This is the lightest of elements; aliens used to use it in their aircraft until their aircraft caught fire in a horrific accident.
  4. Breathium (Br): When combined with Lightium (L), it makes the alien’s most common liquid whose formula is L2Br.
  5. Francium (F): A metal found in period 4 group 13.
  6. Moonium (Mo): An element with an atomic number of 34.
  7. Explodium (Ex): This element is the most reactive metal on the alien’s table.
  8. Violetium (V): This element is found as part of a compound in bananas. When burned, it has a violet colored flame.
  9. Sparkium (Sp) and Burnium (Bu) are members of the alkali metal group, along with Violetium(V) and Explodium (Ex). Their reactivity, from least to greatest, is Sp, Bu, V, Ex.
  10. Balloonium (Ba): A noble gas used to fill balloons.
  11. Toothium (To): This element is added to juices to help build strong bones and teeth.
  12. Metalloidium (M) and Poisonium (Po): Two metalloids found in period 4. Po is the more massive than M.
  13. Lowigium (Lo): A period 4 halogen.
  14. Darkbluium(Dk): Has an atomic mass of 115.
  15. Hugium (Hu): The element on the alien’s periodic table that has the most mass.
  16. Glucinium (Gl): The element found in period 2, group 2.
  17. Reactinium (Re): The most reactive non-metal on the periodic table.
  18. Balloonium (Ba), Signium (Si), Stableium (Sb), Supermanium (Sm), and Hugium (Hu) are all noble gases. They are arranged above from least to most massive.
  19. Cannium (Cn): This element helps to preserve foods; it is used in can manufacturing.
  20. Burnium (Bu), Blue-whitium (Bw), Bauxitium (Xi), Computerchipsium (Cc), Bringer-of-lightium (Bl), Stinkium (Sk), Purium (P), and Stableium (Sb) are all found in period 3. Bu has 1 electron in its outer energy level, Bw has 2, Xi has 3, Cc has 4, Bl has 5, Sk has 6, P has 7 and Sb has 8.
  21. Scottishium (Sc): A metal element found in group 2.
  22. Infectium (If): This element, mixed with alcohol, is used on cuts.
  23. Abundantcium (Ab): One of the most abundant gasses in the universe. It has 7 protons, 7 neutrons, and 7 electrons.
  24. Some additional clues: The number after the symbol indicates the number of electrons in the outer energy level: Notalonium(Na): 5 Earthium (E): 6 Boracium (B): 3

Allele Frequency

The word frequency refers to the number of times something happens. Sometimes frequency is easy to figure out. For example, the frequency of the Summer Olympics is once every four years. With allele frequency, or the frequency of a particular genotype in a population, the task is more complex.

A dominant trait expressed in a population can be the result of either a heterozygous or homozygous genotype. Suppose you are doing research on a rare but serious medical condition. You know that the condition is caused by a single recessive gene. You want to know how many people carry this gene. Is it possible that this condition might eventually disappear from the population?

The Hardy-Weinberg principle can be used to predict the frequencies of certain genotypes if you know the frequency of other genotypes. The medical condition being studied is controlled by two alleles S and s. Because only one gene is involved, inheritance follows the rule of simple dominance.

  • The dominant allele is S, and the recessive allele is s.
  • Only homozygous recessive individuals show symptoms.
  • The population you are studying has 10,000 individuals.
  • There are 36 individuals affected by the condition.

Based on this information, use the Hardy-Weinberg equations to answer the questions.

Analyze and Conclude

  1. Write the Hardy-Weinberg equations in symbols and in words. What value represents the entire population?
  2. In the population you are studying, which allele is represented by p in the Hardy-Weinberg equation? Which allele is represented by q?
  3. What are the frequencies of the dominant S and recessive s alleles in the population? Hint: To find q2, divide the number of affected individuals by the total population.
  4. What are the frequencies of the SS, Ss, and ss genotypes? Show your calculations.
  5. What percentage of individuals in the population are likely to be carrying the s allele, whether or not they know it? Show your calculation.

Build Science Skills

You need more resources to study the effects of the medical condition caused by the recessive allele. Before you apply for grant money to continue your work, you need to know whether the recessive allele is likely to disappear from the population. What percentage of the population carries the s allele but does not show any symptoms? How many individuals does this number represent? Do you think the s allele is likely to disappear from the population?

Alleles
  1. With the genetic model kit, put together a cell that has three pairs of homologous chromosomes. Each chromosome has three shapes on it, in three different colors: red, white and blue. Each one of those shapes represents one allele. When you join a chromosome with its partner, then the matching alleles form genes. Therefore, it takes two alleles (that can be dominant or recessive) to get one gene.
  2. How many alleles does this cell have? How many genes does it have? How many total chromosomes does it have?
  3. Describe the relationship between genes, alleles and chromosomes, in your own words.
  4. Design your own bacteria:
    1. What is it called?
    2. What does it do?
    3. Choose one of the pairs of chromosomes. For each gene, make up a characteristic that this gene represents – this is the dominant trait. For each gene, also specify the recessive trait.

Analogous Structures

Analogous Structures

This diagram shows the wing structure of four different animals: insect, dinosaur, bird and bat.

  1. Differentiate in two ways the wings of the bird and the insect.
  2. “Batman” is a fictional character, but humans are capable of flight with structures like hang-gliders. Explain why, if he were real, “Batman” would have to have wings many times bigger than they are in the movies.
  3. Wings are examples of analogous structuresbecause they have the same function, but very different bone structures (and sometimes, no bones at all). Think of two animals that have parts which do the same thing, but have very different structures.
    1. What are the two animals?
    2. What do they do that is similar?
    3. What structure does each one have that is different?

Analyzing Data Graphing Activity

1. An experiment studies the effects of an experimental drug on the number of offspring a mother mouse has. 10 female mice are given the drug and then impregnated. The number of mice in their litters is compared to the litters of mice that did not take the drug.

Number of Babies in Litter
Group A (drug) 5 6 4 8 5 2 7 12 12 8
Group B (control) 4 4 6 6 5 6 4 7 5 3

Based on the data, what would you conclude about the drug; did it work?

2. Cow Growth Rates

A type of feed claims to boost the growth rate of cows. The feed is tested on two twin newborn cows. Bessie receives the experimental feed, and Bertha receives regular corn feed. Their weights are recorded below.

Month April May June July August
Bessie 150 lbs 210 lbs 260 lbs 320 lbs 400 lbs
Bertha 150 lbs 250 lbs 290 lbs 340 lbs 400 lbs

Graph the data; use a dotted line for Bessie and a straight line for Bertha. Make sure you label the X and Y axis.

Both cows ended at the same weight, but did the experimental feed change the way they gained weight at all? Describe your conclusions about the experimental feed and explain why it is important that the experiment used twin cows.

3. Town Populations Graph

a. According to the graph, which town grew the fastest?

b. Which town declined in population?

c. Which town had the smallest change in population?

d. What is the population of Woodland in 2000?

4. Species Graph

 

a. According to the graph, which group of organisms has the most number of species?

b. What is the total percentage for all invertebrates?

c. Approximately what percentage are vertebrates?

5. Tiger Shark Population

The population of tiger sharks off the coast of Florida was recorded over several months. Graph the tiger shark populations below.

January: 12
February: 15
March: 25
April: 35
May: 34
June: 44
July: 49
August: 55
September: 72
October: 85
November: 98
December: 105

The number of nurse sharks was also recorded for this time period; though the person recorded the number was not as reliable as the person recording tiger shark numbers. The following data was taken on nurse sharks. Use a different color to graph the nurse shark population on the graph you just made.

March: 60
April: 52
July: 38
August: 20
November: 14
December: 11

a. At what month would you expect the number of nurse sharks to equal the number of tiger sharks?

b. What does the graph tell you about the trends of both shark populations?

Animal Body Plans

Read pp. 611 to 616  in Miller & Levine and answer #1 – 4 on p. 616. Then do the following activity:

Individually, you will design a “fantasy” animal by choosing variations of features from the Body Plans chart on p. 614. You will sketch the animal on an 8.5″ x 11″ (one sheet) poster (you may use a collage of cutouts from magazines, etc.) and be ready to present it to others, describing its body plan. You should show both internal and external features.

Arctic & Greenland Glacial Melt

Background

As of mid-2010, glaciers around the world are melting at record rates, much faster than some of the most pessimistic predictions. Take this article from the Washington Post,

“The Jakobshavn Isbrae glacier, one of the largest glaciers in Greenland, swiftly lost a 2.7-square mile chunk of ice between July 6 and 7, NASA announced late last week. The ice loss pushed the point where the glacier meets the ocean, known as the “calving front,” nearly one mile farther inland in a single day. According to the space agency, the new calving front location is the farthest inland on record.”

This movement wasn’t unusual except for the fact that it was caught happening in real time. Of course, it’s historically unusual, as glaciers should remain constant over the course of a year, with melting equalling addition via snow. And since ice reflects sunlight better than ocean water, the more ocean water there is, the warmer the entire Earth gets. So the melting of glaciers becomes a positive feedback loop very quickly.

Procedures

In this lab, you will measure the “solar constant” which is the amount of heat produced when direct sunlight falls on one square centimeter of the Earth’s surface in one minute. You will measure on two surfaces, one that approximates the heat absorbed by ice and one that approximates the heat absorbed by ocean water. You will devise and construct an instrument to measure the maximum amount of heat produced by sunlight falling on this square centimeter, making sure to make a null hypothesis. You will need a data table for recording your measurements of heat at intervals of 30 seconds for about five minutes. Finally you will calculate the solar constant for both cases and compare in a lab report.

Baggie Cladistics

From John Banister-Marx, ENSI (Evolution & the Nature of Science Institutes) www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb

Materials:

  • Venn Diagram regions (they look like a bunch of boxes inside one another)
  • Eight different organism cards
  • One organism name strip
  • Seven clear plastic bags
  • A piece of blank paper
  • Scissors
  • Tape/glue.

Procedures:

  1. Cut apart the eight organism cards.
  2. Examine the organisms on the cards. Pay attention to the description of the organisms.
  3. Select the two most similar organisms and put their cards together in one baggie.
  4. Then select the organism which is most like the ones you chose in step #3. Place that organism card in a second baggie. Place the first baggie, with its two organisms into the second baggie. The result looks a bit like this:baggie1
  5. Continue the process. Select the next most similar organism. Place its card in a fresh baggie. Then add the baggie of baggies, containing all the previous cards. Continue until all the cards are in the bags.baggie2
  6. Now it is time to record your data. Consider what characteristics are present in all the organisms in the bags have in common. Write down that characteristic on the dotted line in the outermost Venn region.
  7. Start disassembling your baggies and note what comes out of the outermost bag. There should be one card in the bag along with a bag full of more bags and the other cards. Record this organism by taking the appropriate name strip and attaching it to the shaded area in the outermost box. Continue until all 8 cards are in the 7th bag.baggie3
  8. Consider the remaining bags of organism cards. What do all these organisms have in common? Write down that characteristic on the dotted line in the second largest Venn region.
  9. Continue to disassemble your bags. Each time a card is released you should paste the organism’s name strip in the appropriate region.
  10. Repeat steps 8 and 9 until all of the cards are out of the baggies and the 8 name strips have been affixed to the diagram.baggie4
  11. Of course this is a Venn diagram, not a cladogram (branching tree diagram). But Venn diagrams are a great way to set up your cladogram. Take a piece of blank paper. Unlined paper is great, but notebook paper will do just fine. Place the paper over your Venn diagram. Your diagram will guide your drawings Draw a line from outside all of the Venn regions into the largest Venn region. As soon as you enter the largest Venn region, divide your line into two branches. One branch goes to the outermost organism. The other branch leads to the next Venn region.baggie5
  12. Continue your line, branching each time you enter a new Venn region. One line extends to the organism listed in that region, the other reaches into the next Venn region.baggie6
  13. When you are done, You will have a branching tree diagram that looks a bit like a bonsai tree.
  14. Label the tips of the branches with the names of the organisms.
  15. Label the nodes (the branch points) with the reason for the branching (the shared characteristic). Note the organism “name 6” has characteristics 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 but does not have characteristic 7.baggie7
  16. Voila! You have made a cladogram. Why do organisms resemble one another?
  17. What does it mean when two organisms are very similar?
  18. List and describe at least two ways that similarity between organisms can be determined.
  19. Compare and contrast a cladogram (branching tree diagram) with a pedigree (family tree).

Organism Cards and Templates:

organismcardsbaggie9baggie8

Balancing Reactions

You will need an atomic model set to complete this assignment.  Keep in mind that there needs to be the same amount of each atom before and after the reaction; build, sketch and balance the following equations:

  1. H → H2
  2. O → O2
  3. O2 → O3
  4. H2 + O2 → H2O
  5. CH4 + O2 → CO2 + H2O
  6. H2 + N2 → NH3
  7. Al + CuO → Al2O3 + Cu
  8. Al + O2 → Al2O3
  9. (NH4)2CO3 → NH3 + CO2 + H2O
  10. Mg + O2 → MgO
  11. H2SO4 + Pb(OH)4 → Pb(SO4)2 + H2O
  12. NO2 → N2O4
  13. CO + H2 → CH3OH
  14. NO + O2 → NO2
  15. NH3 + O2 → NO + H2O
  16. C3H8 + O2 → CO2 + H2O
  17. KMnO4 + HCl → KCl + MnCl2 + H2O + Cl2

Base Percentages

During the middle part of the twentieth century, the race was on to discover what genes were made of. Both chemists and biologists were working on the problem. One important piece of the puzzle fell into place in 1949. The chemist Erwin Chargaff discovered that there is almost always the same amount of adenine (A) as thymine (T) in a sample of DNA. Also, there is almost always the same amount of guanine (G) as cytosine (C) in a DNA sample.

Chargaff noted the pattern. But he did not understand the significance of this data and what it suggested about the structure of DNA. The table shows a portion of the data that Chargaff collected.

Percentages of Bases in Five Organisms

Source of DNA

A

T

G

C

Streptococcus

29.8

31.6

20.5

18.0

Yeast

31.3

32.9

18.7

17.1

Herring

27.8

27.5

22.2

22.6

Human

30.9

29.4

19.9

19.8

E. coli

24.7

23.6

26.0

25.7

Analyze and Conclude

  1. What is being measured in the table?
  2. Which organism has the highest percentage of A? Which has the highest percentage of T?
  3. If a species has 35 percent A in its DNA, what would you expect its percentage of T to be?
  4. If a species has 35 percent A in its DNA, what would its percentage of G and C combined be? What would its percentage of G be? What would its percentage of C be?
  5. What does the fact that A and T, and G and C, were found in almost equal amounts suggest? What does the fact that the pattern repeats for different organisms suggest?

Build Science Skills

Sometimes patterns are easier to see if you make a model or some visual representation. Make a bar graph of the data in the table. Include a key to show how you are representing each base. In your opinion, does the graph make the pattern more obvious?

Basic JavaScript: values, variables, and control flow
  1. What is the biggest number that can be stored in JavaScript?
  2. Why should you add parentheses when doing math?
  3. What does the % operator do?
  4. What is a string?
  5. How do you add a new line in a string?
  6. How do you include a tab in a string?
  7. List and explain all 7 comparison operators.
  8. List and explain all 3 logical operators.
  • Show and explain your answers to Ex 2.1 – 2.6.

Basic Needs of Organisms
  1. What are at least ten basic needs that you have in order to survive?
  2. The four basic needs that all animals have are: food, water, space and shelter. In your own life, how do you get these basic needs?
  3. Get three environments. For each of these three environments, answer (you should have six total responses for this question):
    1. What is the basic need that is the hardest to get for animals in this environment?
    2. What is the basic need that is the easiest to get for animals in this environment?
  4. Get three animals. For each of these animals, answer (you should have six total responses for this question):
    1. Which of the basic needs is it the hardest to get for this animal?
    2. Which of the basic needs is it the easiest to get for this animal?
  5. Given the three animals, three environments, and your own basic needs, write the four basic needs in order of how hard they are to fulfill, from easiest to hardest. Explain your choices in one paragraph.

BASKS

Finish the BASKS activity on Moodle. Go here in order to access!

Bean Plants

In this activity, you will be planting nine beans and tracking their growth for about three weeks. You need to keep all your procedures the same throughout the experiment, so it’s important that you write down all of the materials and procedures at the beginning. On a separate sheet of paper, you will make the following sections for this experiment:

  1. Question
      What is the question that you would like to answer with this experiment? For example, do you want to find out which plant grows the highest? Do you want to find out if you can give the plants hot water? Do you want to see what the effect of MiracleGro is on half of your plants? Be specific with the question that you want to answer and write it in the “Question” part of your paper.
  2. Materials
      Decide how many of which bean that you would like to use. You must choose exactly 9 beans. Write this down as part of your materials. Write down the other materials you will need in order to perform this experiment.
  3. Procedures
      Write down the procedures that you will follow over the next 2 – 3 weeks. You should be using about ¼ cup of water when you water them and you should plant the beans about ¼ – ½ inch below the soil.
  4. Hypothesis
      Make a hypothesis about what you think will happen by the end of the experiment. Be specific with what you think will happen and why! Include numbers, such as exactly how high you think the beans will grow. This hypothesis should answer your question.
  5. Use the charts below to help you keep track of your data. You will start recording the height of your beans once they sprout (germinate).
Bean Type of Bean Height (in cm) per day
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Type of Bean # Planted # Grew % Alive Average Height

Bean Plants Progress Report
  1. Has your question changed at all since you started the experiment? Is your independent variable the same? Your dependent variable?
  2. What actual methods did you follow when you planted the beans? Be specific!
  3. Now that you have planted them, has your hypothesis changed at all?
  4. Make a copy of your data table so far.

 

Bean Plants Version 2.0

In this long-term project, you will be planting nine beans and tracking their growth for about six weeks. You need to keep all your procedures the same throughout the experiment, so it’s important that you write down all of the materials and steps at the beginning. For this homework assignment, you will determine the following for this experiment:

Question

What is the question that you would like to answer with this experiment? Include an independent (what you are changing) and a dependent (what you are measuring) variable. Some examples of independent variables include using fertilizer, changing the temperature of the water that you’re using to water the plants, limiting the amount of sunlight the beans get, treating the beans differently before planting them, and more. Some examples of dependent variables include the time needed to germinate, the height of the plant, and more. You should phrase your question as: “How does independent variable change the dependent variable?”

Materials

You will have exactly 9 beans. Write this down as part of your materials. Write down the other materials you will need in order to perform this experiment.

Procedures

Write down the procedures that you will follow over the next 2 – 3 weeks. You should be using about ¼ cup of water when you water them and you should plant the beans about ¼ – ½ inch below the soil.

Hypothesis

Make a hypothesis about what you think will happen by the end of the experiment. Include numbers, such as exactly how high you think the beans will grow. This hypothesis should answer your question!

Data
Use the charts below to help you keep track of your data. You will start recording the height of your beans once they sprout (germinate).

Bean Type of Bean Height (in cm) per day
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Beans and Birds

Natural selection is the main way that evolution works. It is the process that creates populations that are adapted to their environments. Organisms with favorable variations tend to survive and pass their variations to offspring while those with unfavorable variations die. In this activity, your group will design and conduct a simulation experiment to answer a question concerning the evolution of seed coloration in bean seeds.

  1. What is the main idea behind natural selection?

It is important to a population of bean plants that its seeds survive and grow into a new generation of plants. Mutations may have produced many seed color variations such as red, blue, brown, orange, and white. Since the seed colors that actually exist in pinto bean plants are brown and white, it seems reasonable to conclude that these colors are an advantage to the bean plants’ survival and were selected over many generations. The problem you will investigate using pinto bean seeds is: “How does natural selection change the frequency of genes or traits in a population over many generations?

  1. Get the following materials:
    1. One container of each of the colors of bean seeds
    2. Three different habitats (construction paper)
  2. Using the materials on the above list, design an experiment that answers the question posed by the problem: ”How does natural selection change the frequency of genes or traits over many generations?” In other words, how can natural selection change the numbers of certain colors of bean seeds? In your experiment, you will:
    1. Have a “bird” (a member of your group) eat half of the beans every generation.
    2. Reproduce the beans that survive after each generation by doubling their numbers, repeating for at least five generations.
    3. Record how many beans were eaten and survived every generation.
    4. Use the different habitats to show what happens to the numbers and colors of the beans when the habitat changes. For example, you could do the experiment three times, once with a black habitat, once with a brown habitat, and once with a green habitat.
  3. In designing your investigation:
    1. State a hypothesis
    2. Describe a procedure
    3. Determine what data to collect and create a data table for each habitat
  4. Get your procedure approved by the teacher before you start!
  5. Do the experiment and record the data.
  6. Make a graph to illustrate your data. This can be a bar, circle, line graph or something else of your choice. Compare the different color beans.
  7. Study your survivor populations for each generation. These are the beans that are not eaten by the bird. What changes occurred in the frequencies (totals) of colors between each generation?
  8. Compare the original and survivor populations. Is there any seed color or colors from the original population that are not represented in the survivor population?
  9. How do the colors of the survivors relate to their habitat?
  10. What do you predict would happen to the frequencies of colors if you continued the simulation activity for several more generations?
  11. How might a change in the habitat or in the animals (herbivores) eating the seeds affect the frequencies of seed colors?
  12. Have you confirmed your hypothesis? Explain.
  13. Explain how natural selection changes the frequency of genes over many generations.
  14. How would you improve this experiment? Comment on seed color, habitat, seed eating herbivores, number of repetitions, season of the year, etc.

Beetles, Part 2

Take your 16 beetles from part one (ask me or another student if you do not have any beetles) and separate the four beetles that survived. At random, take two of the beetles and “breed” them by creating sixteen more beetles in the second generation. Make sure to only include characteristics from the two parents, and try to mix up those characteristics in each member of the second generation. Hand in your two parents, sixteen children and responses to the following questions:

  1. What are three observations that you can make about the children?
  2. Are all of these children well suited for their environment? Why or why not?
  3. Choose one of the aspects of your environment and change it. Which beetles in the second generation are best suited for this new environment? Why?
  4. Think about what beetles will be around in ten generations. What would you expect them to look like?

Beetles: Part 1

This is an introduction to evolution and an activity that you can do with other people.
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-N1kAsJPMLs8/TeUeOX1vI5I/AAAAAAAAAuo/CsFFtelPNcI/s1600/Step+3+illus.jpg

  1. You will take a single piece of paper and fold it in half four times and then cut along all of the folds. You should now have sixteen pieces of paper.
  2. On each of those pieces of paper, you will draw a beetle. Each beetle should have the following features:
    1. A body
    2. Antennae, either short or long
    3. Six legs, either short or long
    4. Eyes, either small or big
    5. Beak (mouth), either small or big


http://img.oncoloring.com/beetle_497ad4053f62c-p.gifTry your best to make each beetle different; this means that if one beetle has short antennae, short legs, small eyes and a small beak, then your next beetle might have short antennae, short legs, small eyes and a big beak.

  1. The next step is where you will need another person. Ask the person to come up with an imaginary environment for your beetles and ask them the following questions:
    1. Do the beetles need to feel things that are very tall?
    2. Do the beetles need to be able to run very quickly?
    3. Do the beetles need to see things from far away?
    4. Do the beetles need to eat things that are very big?
  2. Given this environment from #3, decide which four of your sixteen beetles are best suited for their environment. Indicate on the individual beetles which four those are.
  3. Write a paragraph of at least 5 sentences that explains why those four beetles are best suited for the environment.
  4. Turn in your beetles and the answers to the above questions. Keep in mind that you will use your beetles for the next homework assignment!

 

Benefit & Harm
For #2 Purple Loose Strife Locusts Box Turtles
What Benefits
What is Harmed
For #3 and #4 (producer) (primary consumer) (secondary consumer)
What Benefits
What is Harmed
  1. Make a food web for the temperate deciduous forest. Include at least eight organisms.
  2. For each of the following organisms, pick one organism from your food web that benefits and one that is harmed and fill in the chart:
    1. Purple Loose Strife: An invasive plant that is not native to northeastern Ohio, but takes the place of other native species; not poisonous to herbivores
    2. Locusts: Beetle-like flying insects that swarm and damage crops
    3. Box Turtles: Small turtles that are omnivorous
  3. From your food web choose one producer, one primary consumer and one secondary consumer. Fill in the chart above with your choices.
  4. Assume that each organism that you just chose leaves your food web. You will fill in the chart with one organism that benefits and one that is harmed due to this organism leaving your food web.
  5. What kinds of organisms (producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer) benefit and which are harmed when the following are introduced:
    1. An invasive producer
    2. A carnivore
    3. An omnivore
  6. What kinds of organisms (producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer) benefit and which are harmed when the following leave the ecosystem:
    1. A producer
    2. An herbivore
    3. A carnivore

Benthic Invertebrate Identification

Stonefly Nymphs (PlecopCourtesy of the Cacapon Institutetera) | Long thin antenna project in front of the head; wing pads usually present on the thorax but may only be visible in older larvae; three pairs of segmented legs attach to the thorax; two claws are located at the end of the segmented legs; gills occur on the thorax region, usually on the legs or bottom of the thorax, or there may be no visible gills (usually there are none or very few gills on the abdomen); gills are either single or branched filaments; two long thin tails project from the rear of the abdomen.  Stoneflies have very low tolerance to many insults; however, several families are tolerant of slightly acidic conditions.

Courtesy of the Cacapon InstituteCaddisfly larvae (Trichoptera)  | Head has a thick hardened skin; antennae are very short, usually not visible; no wing pads occur on the thorax; top of the first thorax always has a hardened plate and in several families the second and third section of the thorax have a hardened plate; three pairs of segmented legs attach to the thorax; abdomen has a thin soft skin; single or branched gills on the abdomen in many families, but some have no visible gills; pair of prolegs with one claw on each, is situated at the end of the  abdomen; most families construct various kinds of retreats consisting of a wide variety of materials collected from the streambed.

Beetles (Coleoptera) | Head has thick hardened skin; thorax and abdomen of most adult families have moderately hardened skin, several larvae have a soft-skinned abdomen; no wing pads on the thorax in most larvae, but wing pads are usually visible on adults; three pairs of segmented legs attach to the thorax; no structures or projections extent from the sides of the abdomen in most adult families, but some larval stages have flat plates or filaments; no prolegs or long tapering filaments at the end of the abdomen.  Beetles are one of the most diverse the insect groups, but are not as common in aquatic environments.

Water Penny (Coleoptera)

Riffle Beetles (Coleoptera)

Beetle Larvae (Coleoptera)

http://www.stroudcenter.org/research/projects/schuylkill/taxa/images/taxon43.jpg

http://www.stroudcenter.org/research/projects/schuylkill/taxa/images/taxon14.jpg

Courtesy of the Cacapon Institute

Courtesy of the Cacapon Institute

Mayfly Nymphs (Ephemeroptera)    | Wing pads may be present on the thorax; three pairs of segmented legs attach to the thorax; one claw occurs on the end of the segmented legs; gills occur on the abdominal segments and are attached mainly to the sides of the abdomen, but sometimes extend over the top and bottom of the abdomen; gills consist of either flat plates or filaments; three long thin caudal (tails filaments) usually occur at the end of the abdomen, but there may only be two in some kinds.

Courtesy of the Cacapon InstituteDobsonfly Larvae & Hellgrammites ( Corydalidae ) | Head and thorax has thick hardened skin, while the abdomen has thin soft skin; prominent chewing mouthparts project in front of the head; no wing pads on the thorax; three pairs of segmented legs attach to the thorax; seven or eight pairs of stout tapering filaments extend from the abdomen; end of the abdomen has either a pair of prolegs with two claws on each proleg, or a single long tapering filament with no prolegs.

Gastropoda (Snails) | Operculate snails have a flat lid-like structure called an operculum that can seal the body of the snail inside the shell; the whorls of the shell bulge out distinctively to the sides (inflated); most have their opening on the right when the narrow end is held up; shells often extended into a spiral shape.  Non-operculate snails have no operculum; the whorls of the shell do not distinctly bulge out to the sides; often the shells of most kinds are shaped like a low flat cone or coiled flat instead of being extended in a spiral shape.  Typical size range for most snails is VS-L, which includes the shell.

Pouch & Pond Snails (Gastropoda)

Gilled Snails (Gastropoda)

http://mason.gmu.edu/~jarcisze/StreamMonitoring/images/macroinvertebrates/gilled_snails1.gif

 

Crustacea (Crayfish, Shrimp, Scuds and Sowbugs) | More than three pairs of legs (> 6) attached to the thorax; the first several pairs of legs may have a hinged claw, which is often enlarged as in the order Decapoda; bodies strongly flattened from top to bottom or from side to side; abdomen consists of individual segments or the segments may be fused to form a thoracic shield; some kinds have a broad flipper on the end of the abdomen.

Crayfish (Decapoda)

Sowbugs (Isopoda)

Courtesy of the Cacapon Institute

http://www.stroudcenter.org/research/projects/schuylkill/taxa/images/taxon28.jpg

Courtesy of the Cacapon Institute

Dragonfly Nymphs (Anisoptera) & Damselfly Nymphs (Zygoptera) | Dragonflies: Lower lip (labium) is long and elbowed to fold back against the head when not feeding, thus concealing other mouthparts; wing pads are present on the thorax; three pairs of segmented legs attach to the thorax; no gills on the sides of the abdomen; Dragonflies have three pointed structures may occur at the end of the abdomen forming a pyramid shaped opening; bodies are long and stout or some- what oval.  Damselflies have three flat gills at the end of the abdomen forming a tail-like structure and their bodies are long and slender.

Courtesy of the Cacapon Institute

Clam (Bivalvia) | Two shells opposite of each other and strongly connected by a hinged ligament; the shell is thick and strong or thin and fragile in some kinds; growth rings on the shell are either far apart and are distinctly raised, or very close together and hardly raised at all; the foot usually consists of two tubular structures that can often be seen protruding from the shell; the body is soft tissue, often pinkish or gray in color.

 

On a separate sheet of paper, identify which invertebrate family(ies) could possibly match the following descriptions:

  1. Has six legs on the thorax, two long antennae and two long projections on the rear of the abdomen

  2. Has ten legs, including two claws attached to the front of the thorax

  3. Body is contained within shell that is whorled

  4. Has six legs on the thorax and three antenna-like filaments on the rear of the abdomen and a slender body

  5. Has six legs on the thorax and a disc-shaped body

  6. Body is contained within a shell that has rings

  7. Has six legs on the thorax and eight pairs of leg-like structures attached to the abdomen

  8. Has six legs on the thorax and three antenna-like filaments on the rear of the abdomen and a body that expands at the thorax

  9. Has six legs on the thorax and a body covered with stones from the bottom of the stream

Biochemistry: Glands of the Endocrine System

Read pp. 813 – 816 in Miller & Levine and do #1 – 5 on p. 816. Additionally, complete pp. 527 – 528 in the Student Study Guide.

Biochemistry: Nervous System

Read pp. 747 – 757 in Miller & Levine. Do #1 – 5 on p. 750, p. 753 , #1 & 2 on p. 755, and #1 – 5 on p. 757.

Biochemistry: Neurons

Read pp. 742 – 746 in Miller & Levine. Do #1 – 6 and the following activity:

In your group, prepare a one-minute news segment on nerve impulses. The “reporters” can describe the resting neuron and the threshold, while “on-the-scene” reporters can describe the moving impulse and synapse. Be imaginative in your reporting and include at least one visual aid.

Biochemistry: The Endocrine System

Read pp. 810 – 812 in Miller & Levine and do #1 – 5 on p. 812. Additionally, complete pp. 524 – 526 in the Student Study Guide.

Biology Book

Do the assigned work in the “Biology: Foundations” book or log on to pearsonsuccessnet.com and follow the directions:

1. On the bottom-left of the page, it says “Book Case.” You will see a picture of the book like this: 

2. To the right of the picture of the book, there is a link that says “Open Book.” Click that to get to the online book.

3. In order to get to a specific page in the book, go to the toolbar at the top of the window that pops up, and change the number next to “Page.” Usually, it will start with the cover, so to get to page 8, just replace the word “Cover” with 8 and then hit “enter” on the keyboard.

Biome Display

You will make a free-standing biome display that meets the following characteristics:

  1. Biome Name, in letters at least 1 inch tall.
  2. A written description of the biome summarizing the biotic and abiotic factors.
    1. Can be single or double spaced. Length to be between 1/2 and 1 page.
  3. A chart of the average precipitation for one month, gathered for one year.
  4. A chart of the average temperature for one month, gathered for one year.
  5. A graph plotting temperature and precipitation on the same paper.
  6. Food web, using the common names (not pictures) of the common plants and animals found in the biome and include the following: Animals, green plants, fungus (by name), animals found near or in the ground, bacteria (by name)
  7. Construct a pyramid of energy for the biome using the names of common plants and animals you have researched.
  8. A labeled diagram of a typical soil profile of the biome.
  9. A map of North America with the biome colored or highlighted.
  10. List two organisms in that biome that illustrate mutualism.
  11. List two organisms in the biome that illustrate commensalism.
  12. List two organisms in the biome that illustrate parasitism.
  13. List a common example of interspecific competition.
  14. List National Parks and Monuments found in the biome. Tell the location (state, province, or country if outside Canada or the U.S.)
  15. Identify the main causes of environmental damage.
  16. Identify solutions that are developed or being developed to correct this environmental problem.
  17. Various pictures typical of your biome. May be photocopied and colored, may be originals which come from magazines (your own, not the schools) newspapers, and so forth, May be hand drawn or computer drawn.

Biome Display for Temperate Deciduous Forest

You will make a free-standing biome display for the temperate deciduous forest that meets the following characteristics:

  1. Choose a place in the world that has the TDF.  Make this location your title.
  2. Make a written description of the location summarizing the biotic and abiotic factors.  Can be single or double spaced. Length to be 2 paragraphs (5 – 7 sentences per paragraph).
  3. A chart of the average precipitation for one month, gathered for one year, and average temperature for one month, gathered for one year.  Also, make a graph plotting temperature and precipitation on the same paper.  You can use http://rssWeather.com/ to help you.
  4. Construct a pyramid of energy for the biome using the names of common plants and animals you have researched.
  5. List two organisms in that biome that illustrate mutualism, two that illustrate commensalism, two that illustrate parasitism and an example of interspecific competition.
  6. Identify the 3 main causes of environmental damage in the location and solutions that are developed or being developed to correct this environmental problem.
  7. A picture typical of your location. May be photocopied and colored, may be originals which come from magazines, newspapers, or the internet.

Biomes & Climate
  1. Label the continents.
  2. Using the climograph for your biome:
    1. What is the average temperature in January? July?
    2. What is the average precipitation in April? October?
    3. In terms of temperature and precipitation, describe both summers and winters. For example, you could say that summers are very hot and very wet, while winters are frigid and very dry.
  3. In your group, research your assigned biome. You will need to look at all of the biomes in order to determine some of the following information:
    1. A specific place on Earth where this biome can be found
    2. On a scale of 1-4, how hot the biome is
    3. On a scale of 1-4, how greatly the temperature ranges
    4. On a scale of 1-4, how much precipitation the biome gets
    5. On a scale of 1-4, approximate height of vegetation
    6. A summary of this biome in less than 30 words
  4. Present your research from #3. As you present, other students will be filling out a biome strip and will place it in the correct place on the map.

Biosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere and Atmosphere
  1. Fill in the chart below by giving an example of how the sphere on the top affects the sphere along the left-hand side.  One of the squares has already been filled in for you:  The hydrosphere affects the lithosphere when it causes erosion to occur.
  2. Once you are finished with twelve of the sixteen squares, put a star in the remaining four.  Figure out examples of the remaining four by asking others or by doing research.
  3. For each of the four starred examples, make a sketch and write a fictional sentence about that interaction.
Top affects left Biosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Lithosphere
Biosphere
Hydrosphere
Atmosphere
Lithosphere Erosion

Blood Type Problems
  1. Tom P. Son faces charges in a paternity suit brought by Mary H. Lamb. Tom is blood type AB, Ms. Lamb is blood type O. The child is blood type O. Could Tom be the father? Explain, using the appropriate Punnett’s Square.
  2. Two individuals of homozygous type A and homozygous type B marry and have offspring. Describe the genotypes of all of the offspring in the first generation. Show the appropriate Punnett’s Square.
  3. A child has a blood type of AB, and the mother has a blood type of A.
  • What are the possible genotypes of the father? Show the Punnett’s Squares.
  • Could the father be type O? Explain!!

Blood Typing

For this activity, you will be determining the possible blood types of individuals. What you need to know about blood types is that there are four major types, A, B, AB and O. Alleles A and B are co-dominant, meaning that they are equally dominant. The recessive allele is O. The chart below shows the possible genotypes and phenotypes for the ABO blood groups:

Genotype Phenotype
AA A
AO
BB B
BO
AB AB
OO O
  1. Identify the genotypes for John, Harry, Howie, and Len
  2. Complete a Punnett square between Bob and Melanie. What must both Bob and Melanie’s genotypes be in order to have Howie? Remember that everyone gets one characteristic (letter) from their mother and one from their father. You may have to try different genotypes for Bob (who could be AA or AO) and Melanie (who could be BB or BO).
  3. Use the same process that you used in #2 to figure out what Claire’s genotype must be.
  4. What are the genotypic and phenotypic possibilities for Ron? In other words, what are all of the possible genotypes (two letters) and phenotypes (blood types) for Ron? Do Punnett’s Squares for each combination of genotypes that you think is possible.
  5. What is the probability that Bob and Melanie have a child who has AB blood?
  6. Tom P. Son faces charges in a paternity suit brought by Mary H. Lamb. Tom is blood type AB, Ms. Lamb is blood type O. The child is blood type O. Could Tom be the Father? Explain.
  7. Two individuals of homozygous type A and homozygous type B marry and have offspring. Describe the offspring in the first generation.
  8. A child has a blood type of AB, and the mother has a blood type of A. What are the possible genotypes of the father? Could the father be type O? Explain!!

Bounce Height Lab

Materials:

  • Lacrosse ball
  • Post-its
  • Meter stick

Methods:

  1. Choose three different heights to drop the ball from.
  2. Hypothesize how the bounce height will differ between those three heights.
  3. For each height, drop the ball three times and record the height that the ball bounces.
  4. Take the average of each of the three trials for each height.
  5. Represent your data in a table.
  6. What was the relationship between the height you held the ball and the height it bounced?

Breathing Lab

Holding Your Breath Experiment

  1. Normally, you breathe automatically, without even thinking about it. However, you can control your breathing voluntarily when you want to. For example, you can stop breathing and hold your breath for a while. However, you cannot hold your breath forever. Obviously, it would be very unhealthy to hold your breath for too long! Why?
  2. All parts of your body, including the muscles and the brain, depend on the breathing muscles and the circulation working together to deliver the oxygen needed by all body cells and to remove the carbon dioxide produced by all body cells. The part of your body that is the most sensitive to lack of oxygen is your brain. If the brain is deprived of oxygen for a few minutes, parts of the brain can be permanently damaged. If oxygen deprivation continues, the person can become “brain dead”. Because it is so important to maintain a continuous supply of oxygen, in a healthy person the part of your brain which controls breathing will not let you hold your breath forever. When you try to hold your breath for a long time, after a while this part of your brain will automatically start the breathing rhythm again, even if you try very hard to hold your breath. How long do you think you can hold your breath? (Specify if your estimate is in seconds or minutes.)
  3. Now, take a deep breath and hold your breath as long as you can, while someone in your group times you. Be sure to hold your nose while you hold your breath. How long did you hold your breath?
  4. How do you think that your brain detects when you should not hold your breath any longer and you must start breathing again? What signals might stimulate your brain to make you start breathing again, even though you are trying to hold your breath?
  5. Next, you will carry out a simple experiment to test whether changes in the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood provide the signal to stop holding your breath. You will breathe into a plastic bag for 1 minute and then hold your breath for as long as you can. Before you actually carry out this experiment, predict what you think will happen by answering the following questions.
    • While you are breathing into the plastic bag, what happens to the levels of carbon dioxide in the bag?
    • What happens to the levels of carbon dioxide in your lungs?
    • What happens to the levels of carbon dioxide in your blood?
    • What happens to the levels of carbon dioxide in your brain?
    • While you are breathing into the plastic bag, what happens to the levels of oxygen in the bag?
    • In your lungs, blood, and brain?
    • What change would you predict in how long you can hold your breath after breathing into the bag? Explain why.
  6. In order to make a valid comparison between how long you can hold your breath after normal breathing vs. after breathing into the bag, you need to be sure to hold your breath as long as you can in both conditions. To encourage everyone to hold their breath as long as possible, compare the times that each person in your group was able to hold their breath, and then try again to see if you can hold your breath even longer than your first try. How long did you hold your breath on this second try?
  7. Now, breathe normally for a few minutes. Then, open a 13 gallon plastic bag and swish it through the air to fill it with air. Hold the bag over your mouth and nose and breathe into the bag as normally as you can for 1 minute or as close to a minute as you can. At the end of your time breathing into the bag, take a deep breath of the air from the bag and hold your breath as long as you can while someone in your group times you. How long did you hold your breath?
  8. Was there a difference in the amount of time you could hold your breath after breathing into the bag, compared to after normal breathing? How do you interpret your results?
  9. Compile the data from all the members of your group in the chart below.
    Name How Long Held Breath After Normal Breathing How Long Held Breath After Breathing in Bag
  10. Make a graph of the data for all your group members.
  11. Describe the results. Were the results similar for all members of your group?
  12. How do you interpret your findings?
  13. Finally, you will test whether you breathe differently after holding your breath for as long as you can. First, observe how you breathe during normal breathing. Next, hold your breath as long as you can. Then, observe how you breathe after holding your breath. Describe the differences in breathing after holding your breath, compared to your normal breathing. Also, do you feel your heart pounding?
  14. How do you interpret these observations?

Broken Bones

The skeletal system is responsible for creating cells that help keep us healthy (white blood cells), protects our vital organs and supports our muscular system, allowing us to move.  In order for bones to maintain themselves, they must constantly break down and rebuild the collagen and minerals that they are made of. Cells called osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that eat away the bone’s mineral coating and collagen. You can think of them as “bone destroyers.”  Cells called osteoblasts are cells that lay new collagen and coat the bone with fresh minerals. You can think of them as “bone creators.”  The process of bone destruction and creation is never ending. As a result of this constant breakdown and replacement, human bones are never more than 20 years old.

When a bone is broken:

  • The injury is flooded with natural painkillers called endorphins, which temporarily block out pain.
  • An injury will swell because the body is sending extra oxygen and nutrients to the injury to begin the healing process.
  • A large hematoma, which is a collection of blood, surrounds the break in the bone.
  • Stem cells, which are responsible for making new cells, usually divide every one to two days. Now that there is an injury, they will divide every three minutes.
  • Within four weeks the hematoma will harden around the break, making the injured area extra strong.
  • Over the next several months, osteoclasts will “eat away” the hardened hematoma and the injury will be repaired.
  • Within a year of the injury, the bone will be almost as strong as it was before the break!

Draw (in cartoon style) the process of bone repair following a break, making sure to incorporate at least five vocabulary words you have learned.

You can use the following diagrams to help:

Build Your Own Creature

Creature & Environment Cards

In this activity you will construct imaginary creatures and environments from the lists of characteristics. Be creative since these creatures and environments do not have to behave like anything here on Earth.

  1. Obtain a creature card from your teacher, then make a single choice from each of the 6 creature characteristics.
  2. Once you have made all your choices, fill out your creature card (including a name for your creature) and put it in the class creature box.
  3. Repeat this process two more times to construct two more creatures. Make sure you create significantly different creatures each time.
  4. Obtain three environment cards from your teacher then create an interesting environment. (Note: The environments you create in no way need to match the creatures you have already created.)
  5. Record your choices on your environment card and then put it in the environment box.
  6. Repeat this process two additional times, making sure that each environment you create is different.
  7. Once every group has finished, draw a single creature card and a single environment card from each box. This will be your first creature/environment pair to study. Once each group has drawn their first pair, each group will draw a second creature/environment pair. Repeat this process again so that each group has a third creature/environment pair.
  8. Your group should now have three creature/environment pairs to study. In this portion of the activity, we want to determine the success of each creature in the environment with which it was paired. To do this we will compare each creature characteristic and environment characteristic one pairing at a time. To score your creatures, use the following set of rules.
    1. Award one point if the creature characteristic helps your creature survive in that environment. For example, if the creature characteristic chosen from group #1 is “uses methane gas” and the corresponding environment characteristic from group #1 is “methane gas”, then your creature will earn one point.
    2. Award zero points if the creature characteristic and environment characteristic have no effect on your creature’s success. For example, if the creature characteristic chosen from group #6 is “has the ability to dig” and the corresponding environment characteristic chosen from group #6 is “multi-colored terrain”, then your creature will earn zero points.
    3. Subtract one point if the environment characteristic restricts your creature’s ability to survive. For example, if the creature characteristic chosen from group #1 is “uses oxygen” and the corresponding environment characteristic from group #1 is “carbon dioxide gas”, then your creature will lose one point.
  9. Score each pair of creature and environmental characteristics. Once you are done, record the total score, the creature and the environment.
  10. Would you rate the creature with the greatest score as having been very successful, moderately successful, or not successful in its environment? Describe the success or failure of the interaction between the creature and its environment for each set of characteristics.
  11. Give an example of an organism found on Earth that has a unique characteristic which makes it specifically suited to live in a particular habitat.
  12. Sometimes the characteristic that an organism has that makes it successful in its natural environment becomes useless when the organism is placed in another environment. Describe a real creature and environment found on Earth that would be an example of this situation.
  13. What one change would you make to your creature to make it more successful in the environment with which it was paired? Explain why you chose to make this change. If you feel no changes are needed for this creature, choose one of your less successful creatures to answer this question.

Build Your Own Ecosystem
  1. Come up with an ecosystem of your own. Give it a name and a specific location.
  2. Name at least three abiotic factors and three biotic factors in your ecosystem. You must be specific and include at least one animal!
  3. Describe four relationships between abiotic and biotic factors. For example, if you have a cheetah (a biotic factor) and high temperatures (an abiotic factor) in your ecosystem, then you can write, “High temperatures affect the cheetah by causing it to sleep more”.
  4. For one of the animals in your ecosystem, describe how it meets the four basic needs.

Build Your Own Ecosystem, Part 2

You will use your ecosystem from part one that you created. If you did not create an ecosystem, find a location for your ecosystem (it can be anywhere) and name three biotic factors (living things) in your ecosystem. Assume that your ecosystem is the size of Forest Hills to do the following:

  1. Talk to two people and ask them for a natural disaster which could happen in your ecosystem. For each:
    1. Write down their name
    2. Write down the natural disaster
    3. Predict what would happen to the carrying capacity of each of your three biotic factors due to this natural disaster. Assume that some living things are capable of surviving this natural disaster!
  2. Make a food web for your ecosystem. Add enough biotic factors so that you get a total of at least 8 organisms, including producers, primary consumers and secondary consumers!

Build Your Own Seismograph
From the Regents of the University of California

You need to understand how a seismograph works. A typical seismograph works in a very simple way:

  • A heavy weight is fastened to a rod of some sort.
  • This rod hangs from a pole and is free to swing from side to side when the ground shakes.
  • At the other end of the rod (away from the pole) is an ink pen, and directly underneath the pen is a piece of paper.
  • If the ground does not move, the rod does not swing, and the pen stays in place.
  • If the ground shakes, however, the rod swings and so the pen draws a zigzag line. The stronger the shaking, the sharper the zigzags. This zigzag picture made on the paper roll is called a seismogram.

  1. You will use the following materials (at least) to make your own seismograph: springs, rubber bands, clay, marbles, washers, paper plates and cups, pencils, pieces of wood, and tape.
  2. Your seismograph should be able to detect motion on any surface on which it is placed by the marking of a pen or pencil on some piece of paper.
  3. Test your seismograph by shaking the table gently at first.  Shake it with various intensities to see the effects of different movements.
  4. How could a device like this be useful to society?
  5. What modifications would have to be made to make this device more useful?
  6. How could you improve your design, given the materials that you have?
  7. Look around at others’ devices.  What are some features of other groups’ devices that you would like to adopt in your own?
  8. Why is it important to consider many different options when deciding upon a particular design for a technological device?  Answer as a short-answer question.

Calculating Haploid and Diploid Numbers

One characteristic shared among members of a species is the number of chromosomes in its body cells. Because chromosomes in body cells exist as pairs, this number is referred to as the diploid number. It is represented by the term 2N, which means “two times N.” The haploid number, N, represents the chromosomes that contain a full, single set of genes.

The number of chromosomes varies widely among organisms. The record for the smallest chromosome number goes to a subspecies of the ant Myrmecia pilosula. The females have just a single pair of chromosomes (2N = 2, N = 1). The male ants have only a single chromosome. The record for the largest chromosome number goes to the fern Ophioglossum reticulatum. It has 630 pairs of chromosomes or 1260 chromosomes per body cell.

If you know either the haploid or diploid number, you can calculate the other. For example, if the haploid number (N) is 3, the diploid number (2N) is 2 × 3, or 6. If the diploid number (2N) is 12, the haploid number (N) is 12/2, or 6. The table shows haploid or diploid numbers for several types of organisms. Complete the table. Then use it to answer the Analyze and Conclude questions.

Trait Survey

Organism

Haploid Number

Diploid Number

Amoeba

N = 25

Chimpanzee

N = 24

Earthworm

N = 18

Fern

2N = 1010

Hamster

N = 22

Human

2N = 46

Onion

2N = 16

Analyze and Conclude

  1. Which organism in the table has the most chromosomes? Which has the fewest?
  2. Which cells in a body will have the haploid number of chromosomes?
  3. How many chromosomes are in a chimpanzee’s body cells? How many chromosomes are in a chimpanzee’s gametes?
  4. Why is a diploid number always even?
  5. If you were asked to organize the data from this table into a graph, which kind of graph would you choose? Explain your choice.

Build Science Skills

Compare the number of chromosomes for the different types of organisms in the table. What can you conclude about the complexity of an organism and the number of chromosomes it has? Hint: Are there any single-celled organisms in the table?

Calculating Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy is the measurement of the motion of an object. In the above formula, m stands for mass (in kg) and v stands for velocity (in meters per second). Kinetic energy is measured in joules (J).
  1. What is the kinetic energy of a person who has a mass of 70 kg walking at 1 m/s?
  2. What is the kinetic energy of a train that has a mass of 100,000 kg traveling at 100 m/s?
  3. What is the mass of a car that is traveling with 98,000 J of kinetic energy at 7 m/s?
  4. Calculate the kinetic energy of a pendulum if it moves at an average of 1 m/s and weighs 100 g (there are 1000 g in 1 kg).
  5. Which has more kinetic energy: A 30 kg pit bull running at 2 m/s or a 5 kg Yorkie running at 5 m/s? Show your calculation.
  6. Which of the two dogs from #5 has more momentum (momentum = mass x velocity)? Show your calculation.
  7. Considering your answers to #5 and #6:
    1. Which dog will have more trouble stopping completely?
    2. Which dog will consume more calories if they both run for 5 minutes?
    3. Is it better for football players who need to break tackles to weigh more or to run faster? Why?
    4. Is it better for marathon runners to weigh less or run faster in order to conserve energy? Why?

Cancer Graphs
  1. In figure 4, which shade of line stands for African-Americans?
  2. What does the y-axis stand for? Explain in your own words.
  3. When was the highest death rate for all cancers in African-American males? Females?
  4. For two sites of cancer, the death rate was first higher for whites, then over time it began to be higher for African-Americans. Respond:
    1. Which sites of cancer was this for?
    2. Which gender was this for?
    3. When did it happen?
  5. Which cancer kills more males? More females?
  6. Which cancer kills the most whites?
  7. Now look at figure 5. What does this graph show?
  8. What does the y-axis stand for?
  9. Which two groups are being compared?
  10. Which cancer has the smallest difference in survival between African-Americans and whites? The largest difference?
  11. If 200 African-Americans developed esophageal cancer, approximately how many would die (from all stages)?
  12. Which cancer site do African-Americans survive more often than whites (from all stages)?
  13. What 4 groups is figure 9 comparing?
  14. According to figure 9, who smokes more, African-Americans or whites?
  15. What is the difference between graphs 9 and 10?
  16. Which year did the biggest difference between white and African-American smoking rates occur? The smallest?
  17. Do the statistics in graph 10 agree with the statistics in graph 9? Why?
  18. In which year did whites smoke more than African-Americans?Why do you think these statistics show such a big difference between the health of African-Americans and whites? What contributes to the health of African-Americans?

Carbon Cycle Game

See the document: Carbon Cycle Game

Objective: Get all of the 7 “Carbon Cycle Role” tokens first!

Rules:

  • When starting the game, you receive 3 “Carbon Cycle Function” cards.  You may start your playing piece on any Carbon Cycle Role, but you do not get the Carbon Cycle Role token.
  • When it’s your turn, you get asked a question.  If you answer the question correctly, you can either move to a new Carbon Cycle Role along an arrow and receive that role’s token, or you can select a Carbon Cycle Function card.
  • You can only move to a new Carbon Cycle Role if you have the correct Carbon Cycle Function to get you there.

Carbon Cycle Roles (Green):

  • Producer
  • Primary Consumer
  • Secondary Consumer
  • Decomposer
  • Atmosphere
  • Industry
  • Fossil Fuel

Carbon Cycle Functions (Yellow):

  • Respiration
  • Photosynthesis
  • Predation
  • Consumption
  • Combustion
  • Compaction
  • Decomposition

Questions (Peach):

  1. What is photosynthesis?
  2. What is fermentation?
  3. What is chemosynthesis?
  4. What does a producer eat?
  5. What does a primary consumer eat?
  6. What does a secondary consumer eat?
  7. What does a decomposer eat?
  8. What gas does a producer need?
  9. What gas does a consumer need?
  10. What gas does a producer give off?
  11. What gas does a consumer give off?
  12. What is predation?
  13. What is respiration?
  14. What is decomposition?
  15. What is combustion?
  16. What is compaction?
  17. How many carbon atoms does carbon dioxide (CO2) have?
  18. How many carbon atoms does glucose (C6H12O6) have?
  19. How many carbon atoms does methane (CH4) have?
  20. How many protons does a carbon atom have?
  21. What two molecules are given off whenever you burn anything?
  22. How does carbon end up in the atmosphere?
  23. How does carbon end up inside of producers?
  24. How does carbon end up in primary consumers?
  25. How does carbon end up in secondary consumers?
  26. How does carbon end up in decomposers?
  27. How does carbon end up in fossil fuels?
  28. What are two things that store carbon?
  29. What are two things that release carbon?
  30. Why is carbon dioxide bad for the atmosphere?
  31. Why is methane bad for the atmosphere?
  32. What are two greenhouse gases?
  33. What is global warming?
  34. How long does it take for fossil fuels to form?
  35. What are two things fossil fuels are used for?
  36. What is an alternative to the use of fossil fuels?
  37. Does global warming affect land or oceans more?

    Carrot Diffusion

    In this activity, you will be discovering how water can affect carrots by entering or leaving the cells of the carrot.

    1. Get the following materials: Two beakers or containers, string, measuring tape, salt, balance, carrots
    2. Fill two beakers with equal amounts of water.
    3. Add 15 g salt to one beaker and label it “Salt Water”.
    4. Cut a carrot in half. Tightly tie a piece of string two cm below the cut end of both pieces.
    5. Place one carrot half (cut end down) in the “Salt Water” beaker. Place the other carrot with cut end down in the “Fresh Water” beaker.
    6. Form a hypothesis about what you think will happen in each beaker.
    7. After 24 hours, remove carrots and observe them and the tightness of the strings. Record data.
    8. What was the purpose of having you tie thread on each carrot?
    9. Did the thread become loose in fresh water or salt water?
    10. Did the thread become tight thread in fresh water or salt water?
    11. Did the carrot develop a soft texture in fresh water or salt water?
    12. Did the carrot develop a firm texture in fresh water or salt water?
    13. In which type of water did the carrot cells increase in cell size (freshwater or salt water?)
    14. In which type of water did the carrot cells decrease in cell size (freshwater or salt water?)
    15. What evidence supports your conclusion?
    16. What do you think would happen to human blood cells if they were placed in a beaker of salt water?

    Caterpillar Carrying Capacity

    From: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1qZ8xFT2t2cu4IJrB4BQQLJKyXv7MfDVNJqcdJ_aNtGY/edit#heading=h.bvcp4kfhevc9

    Background

    Carrying capacity is the highest population of a particular organism that can survive in an ecosystem sustainably. More simply, carrying capacity is the number of living things that can survive in one place. Carrying capacity depends on a lot of different factors, and can change due to many factors. It depends on how much food, water, space and shelter are available in the ecosystem; carrying capacity changes based on the population of other organisms, changes in the environment, availability of food sources, and more!

    Manduca sexta, as a caterpillar, requires a large amount of food and a small amount of space in order to survive. Even though it doesn’t require that much space, how much is not enough? Since it requires a large amount of food, how much is not enough?

     

    Materials

    • Tobacco or tomato leaves
    • 12 caterpillars per group
    • 3 habitats per group of varying sizes
    • Materials for making new habitats
    • Diet

     

    Methods

    Your objective will be to determine the minimum amount of space OR the minimum amount of food that one caterpillar needs in order to survive. Given the materials that you have available, you need to:

    1. Choose whether you will be testing for the amount of space or food
    2. Determine the details of the experiment: how many caterpillars in each habitat? How much food in each habitat? How large is each habitat?, etc.
    3. Once your experiment is approved by your teacher, start the experiment!
    4. Mass the amount of food that you are using in grams.
    5. Get the volume of the habitat that you are using in mL. If the habitat will hold water, you can fill it up with water, then calculate how much water you used. If the habitat will not hold water, then you will need to measure, in centimeters, the width, height and depth of the habitat.

     

    Analysis

    1. Based on your question that you answered, make a table with the following columns: Habitat, # of Caterpillars, Amount of Food, Volume of Habitat, Food / Caterpillar, Space / Caterpillar, Caterpillars Survived.
    2. For the “amount of food” column, you will need the mass of the food in grams. For the “volume of habitat” column, you will need the volume in mL. If you have the width, height and depth of the habitat, you will multiply those three numbers to get cubic centimeters (cm3).
    3. Divide the amount of food by the number of caterpillars to get the next column; divide the volume of the habitat by the number of caterpillars to get the next column.
    4. Determine which habitat showed the minimum amount of either space or food (depending on your question) in order for the most amount of caterpillars to survive. Why do you think this is the appropriate amount of space or food?
    5. Compare your results with other groups. Did other groups find similar results? Why or why not?
    6. If you wanted to fit the most amount of caterpillars in the same place, with the least amount of food, how much space would you give each caterpillar, and how much food would you give each caterpillar? Show your work!

     

    Cavs Graphs
    1. You will make a pie graph showing player points for the Cavs. We will graph only the top five scorers.
      1. Who are the top five scorers? Write down their names and total points scored.
      2. Draw a circle, a dot in the center, and draw a line from the center dot to the side of the circle.
      3. For each player, divide their points by total team points and multiply that number by 100 to get total percentage. Write down these total percentages for each player.
      4. Draw lines to represent the other portions of the circle for each player and label it. Any remaining space should be labeled “Rest of Team”.
    2. You will make a line graph to show the score of the game after each quarter, shown at the top of the box score.
      1. The independent variable is the quarter of the game. Where does the independent variable go?
      2. The dependent variable is the score for each quarter. Where does the dependent variable go?
      3. Find the maximum value for the quarter score in order to get the highest value for the y-axis. Label the quarters on the x-axis. Write your labels on each axis.
      4. Finish the graph by using different colors for the Cavs and the other team.
    3. You will make a bar graph for the type of shot made for the Cavs and the other team. There are Field Goals (FG), 3-Pointers (3P) and Free Throws (FT). The shots made are the first number, while the shots attempted are the second number. You should already know what to do at this point, so now you’re on your own!

    Celery Lab

    Plants have tubes called xylem and phloem that transport materials through the plant.

    Materials Per Group

    • Celery stalk with leaves
    • Plastic knife
    • Two cups of water, one with 3 drops blue food coloring and one with red
    • Colored pencils

    Procedure:

    1. With a partner, review your drawings of roots and stems
    2. Make a class sketch of the celery cross section and explain that in today’s lesson students will learn how this structure helps transport of nutrients and water in plants
    3. Cut ½ inch off the non-leaf end of celery
    4. Cut stock from non-leaf end but stop halfway up. (Be careful not to pull two sides apart)
    5. Place cups next to each other
    6. Put each side of the celery stalk into each cup so that it balances upright
    7. Sketch and write observations of this initial set-up.
    8. Write a hypothesis about what you think will happen in the next 24 hours. Use this frame for the hypothesis: If the plant has one part of the stalk in red coloring and the other side of the stalk in blue coloring, then ________________, because _________________________.
    9. Xylem and phloem are tubes found in plant stems that help transport materials. Xylem transports nutrients and water from the roots to the stem; phloem transports sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant. Observe the changes you see in your celery stalk and illustrate and write your observations down.
    10. Remove the celery from the liquid and cut each split stalk horizontally to observe the cross section of the plant. Continue slicing the stalk horizontally al the way up to the leaves.
    11. Select your best specimen to describe and illustrate it in your notebook.
    12. Based on your experiment, what do you think the xylem and phloem do? Note that the colored dots are xylem tubules and the smaller uncolored dots are phloem tubules. Label the xylem and phloem in your illustration.
    13. The xylem tubules are responsible for carrying the water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves and that the phloem tubules are responsible for carrying the food (sugar) that is made in the leaves to the rest of the plant. Draw a Venn diagram, entitled Transport In Living Things. Label one circle “animals” and the other circle “plants.” Complete your Venn diagram using what you know about transporting materials in plants and animals.
    14. Complete the frame: I used to think_______________about how plants transport materials. Now I know__________________. I wonder ________________.

    Cell Differentiation
    1. Pick an organ system and identify at least four organs in the system.
    2. For each organ, figure out the tissue(s) that are needed for the organ.
    3. Draw a diagram with a sketch of the system that contains the organs and sketches of the organs. Include “Tissue Cards” for each tissue that is needed for each of the organs that you chose.

    Cell Division
    1. Choose a living thing other than humans. Find out how many chromosomes this animal has (using books, the chart below, or the internet) and make a model (it must not be a drawing) for the following phases of mitosis:
      1. Prophase
      2. Metaphase
      3. Anaphase
      4. Telophase
    2. Respond:
      1. How many chromosomes does the final cell have?
      2. How many would it have had if it had undergone meiosis?
      3. Where does mitosis not occur?
    Organism Number of chromosomes
    House Fly 12
    Fruit Fly 8
    Mosquito 6
    Pea 14
    Lettuce 18
    Kangaroo 12

    Cell Metaphor

    The purpose of this activity is to create a metaphor for the major organelles of the eukaryotic cell. A metaphor is a useful way to remember the functions of the cell. For example, if my metaphor was that a cell can be like a school:

    Cell organelle Metaphor: School
    Nucleus The main office, because it directs the actions of the school
    Cell Wall The outer walls of the school, because they keep out cold, heat
    Cell Membrane The security guards, because they choose who to let through
    DNA The teachers and books, because they have the information
    Ribosomes The students, because they make the school function
    Mitochondria The cafeteria, because it’s where the energy comes from
    1. Choose the topic for your metaphor and write it down.
    2. Choose six of the organelles in a eukaryotic cell and make the metaphor, as I did above.
    3. Either write a short story (two paragraphs) about something fictional that happens with your metaphor or make a drawing of your metaphor.

    Cells Under the Microscope

    You will get three slides, one by one. Each slide represents a different kingdom of life. For each slide:

    1. Zoom in on a cell as far as you can. Sketch the cell.
    2. What kingdom does it belong to?
    3. Do you see the presence of a nucleus in the cells? Why or why not?

     

    Chemical Formulas

    The central atom in a compound (if there is one) is what everything else is bound to.  There is no central atom in compounds that only have two atoms, like NaCl.  However, in H2O and NH3, the central atoms are O and N, respectively.

    Build, draw and label: 1.  LiF

     2.  H2S

     3.  CaCl2

     4.  ScF3

     5.  K3P

    After you figure out what compound these create, build, draw and label: 6.  magnesium and chlorine

     7.  beryllium and sulfur

     8.  calcium and bromine

     9.  sodium and phosphorous

     10.               carbon and oxygen

    Chi Square Lab

    Introduction

    My friend The FDC (Federal Department of Candy) is investigating Mars Co. There have been allegations that Mars has been fraudulent in their advertising! The accusations relate to Mars’ claims about the color distribution of their flagship product: Milk Chocolate M&Ms! Some consumers have complained about NOT getting the promised distribution of colors; now the FDC and Mars are mired in a bitter lawsuit that threatens the entire US candy industry. As usual, we’ve been hired to investigate and present our results at the trial, whose outcome hinges ENTIRELY on our work. Let us do well. Below is M&M’s CLAIMED color distribution, taken directly from their website http://www.m-ms.com.

    Orange – 4.98 pieces – 23%
    Blue – 4.27 pieces – 20%
    Green – 3.93 pieces – 18%
    Yellow – 3.75 pieces – 17%
    Red – 2.66 pieces – 12%
    Brown – 2 pieces – 9%

    Background

    The Chi Square test (X2) is often used in science to test if data you observe from an experiment is the same as the data that you would predict from the experiment. Calculating X2 values allow you to determine if test results are due to randomness or not. If the data is significantly different from random chance, other factors must be influencing your results. This investigation will help you to use the Chi Square test by allowing you to practice it with M&Ms.

    Biologists generally accept a “p” value (probability) of 0.05 as a cutoff. If you get a probability (p) below 0.05, then this generally means that your observed results are significantly different than what was expected. This means that there is some explanation as to why you got the results that you did, and that it was not random.

    Procedure

    1. Place about 200 candies in a cup or bowl. Record just the different colors in Table 1 and Table 2. Do not count the individual candies or tally them by color.
    2. Without counting, estimate the number (percentage out of 100%) of the different colors of each color of the candies. Record the estimates in Table 1 under “Percentage Expected by Estimate.”
    3. Copy the percentages from the introduction under “Percentage Expected from M&M Company.”
    4. Write a hypothesis which predicts the percentage of the different colors of the candies.
    5. Count the number of each color of candy and record the number in Table 1 under “Number Observed.”
    6. Calculate the number of each color expected by your estimate in Table 1 and record under “Number Expected by Estimate.”
    7. Calculate the number of each color expected by M&Ms estimate in Table 1 and record under “Number Expected by M&M Company.”
    8. Record the numbers expected by estimate (e), and the numbers observed (o) in Table 2.
    9. Record the numbers expected by the M&M company (e), and the numbers observed (o) in Table 3.
    10. Subtract the number expected from the number observed for both Table 2 and Table 3 and place those numbers in the column “o – e”.
    11. Square the column “o – e” and for both Table 2 and Table 3 and place those numbers in the column “(o – e)2“.
    12. Finally, divide column “(o – e)2” by the number expected (e) for both Table 2 and Table 3 and place those numbers in the last column. Add up all of the values in this column. This is your Chi Square value.
    13. You will now convert this to a probability, using Table 4. The Degrees of Freedom is the number of colors of M&Ms, minus one. Then find your Chi Square value in the middle of the table. The probability is the bold number at the top of the column. Write this down.
    14. What is the X2 value for your data?
    15. What is the p value for your data?
    16. Given your p-value, create a statement that describes how significant your data is.
    17. Given a p-value limit of 0.05, is your hypothesis accepted or rejected? Why or why not?
    18. If the hypothesis is rejected, propose an alternate hypothesis.
    19. Suppose you were to obtain a Chi Square value of 7.82 or greater in your data analysis, with 2 degrees of freedom. What would this indicate?

    Table 1

    Color of Candy Number Observed (o) Percentage Expected by Estimate Number Expected by Estimate Percentage Expected by M&M Number Expected by M&M
    Total # of candies:

    Table 2

    Color of Candy Number Expected by Estimate (e) Number Observed (o) o – e (o – e)2 (o – e)2 / e

    Table 3

    Color of Candy Number Expected by M&M (e) Number Observed (o) o – e (o – e)2 (o – e)2 / e

    Table 4

    Degrees of

    Freedom

    (df)

    Probability (p)

    0.95 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.50 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.05 0.01 0.001

    1

    0.004 0.02 0.06 0.15 0.46 1.07 1.64 2.71 3.84 6.64 10.83

    2

    0.10 0.21 0.45 0.71 1.39 2.41 3.22 4.60 5.99 9.21 13.82

    3

    0.35 0.58 1.01 1.42 2.37 3.66 4.64 6.25 7.82 11.34 16.27

    4

    0.71 1.06 1.65 2.20 3.36 4.88 5.99 7.78 9.49 13.28 18.47

    5

    1.14 1.61 2.34 3.00 4.35 6.06 7.29 9.24 11.07 15.09 20.52

    6

    1.63 2.20 3.07 3.83 5.35 7.23 8.56 10.64 12.59 16.81 22.46

    7

    2.17 2.83 3.82 4.67 6.35 8.38 9.80 12.02 14.07 18.48 24.32

    8

    2.73 3.49 4.59 5.53 7.34 9.52 11.03 13.36 15.51 20.09 26.12

    9

    3.32 4.17 5.38 6.39 8.34 10.66 12.24 14.68 16.92 21.67 27.88

    10

    3.94 4.86 6.18 7.27 9.34 11.78 13.44 15.99 18.31 23.21 29.59

    Nonsignificant

    Significant

     

     

    Chocolate Flavored Cherries

    From Dining on DNA: an Exploration of Food Biotechnology by Montana Sate University Extension Service

    Modified by Kirstin Bittel and Rachel Hughes

    Background

    During this lesson students are introduced to the process of recombinant DNA through the imaginary creation of chocolate flavored cherries. Students use a paper simulation to model using restriction enzymes to remove a gene from one plant and insert it into another. Students will be able to identify start and stop sequences in DNA and model using restriction enzyme and ligase to remove sections of DNA and reattach them.

    In recombinant DNA, scientists use restriction enzymes to cut DNA into its parts. New genes can be added to sections or specific genes can be removed altogether.

    Activity

    A large candy company has hired your laboratory to conduct an important project. Consumer surveys indicate that people love the combined flavors of chocolate and cherry, so ACME Candy Company is attempting to develop a new product, chocolate flavored cherries. They want to be the first to put these delicious cherries on the market. You are the laboratory technician who has been hired to insert the gene for chocolate flavor into cherry DNA so that it bears a fruit with chocolate flavor. The “big shot” at your lab has already isolated a gene in chocolate that is responsible for its flavor. Your job is to follow the procedures provided in order to insert the gene responsible for chocolate flavor into vector DNA so that the gene can be carried into the cherry.

    Background Information on Recombinant DNA

    As you know, DNA is the material within a cell that determines what and organism looks like and how it functions. DNA does all of this with the proteins that it codes. Today, scientists are able to insert pieces of “foreign” DNA into an organism’s DNA so that the organism will show a desired characteristic, produce a certain substance, or even not express an undesirable characteristic. This moving of DNA pieces between unrelated organisms is called recombinant DNA technology.

    There are many ways to insert a piece of DNA from one organism into the cells of another organism. In recombinant DNA technology, one of the most widely used mechanisms for DNA insertion is the plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A plasmid is a circular ring of DNA which is found in some bacteria. The agrobacterium’s plasmid is unique because it has a DNA transforming region. When the bacterium bumps up against another cell, the DNA within the transfer region (T-DNA) “jumps out” of the plasmid and is inserted into the other cell’s chromosome.

    As a biotechnologist, you could use your knowledge about this special capability of the T-DNA region of this plasmid in order to transfer desirable genes into plant cells of your choice. So how do you “recombine” DNA using this technology? Once you have found the DNA that contains the characteristics you want, you must isolate or remove this specific DNA section. Restriction enzymes are special molecules that cut the DNA in specific places so that the section you are looking for can be removed. Once the DNA fragment is cut, it needs to be inserted into the vector DNA (the agrobacterium’s plasmid). You must first isolate the plasmid from the Agrobacterium and then expose the plasmid to the restriction enzyme so that a gap in this circular DNA opens to combine with the new piece of DNA.

    The restriction enzymes must be selected carefully so that 1) it cuts the DNA fragment (the new piece of DNA) that contains the specific characteristics you want, and 2) it splices the T-DNA out of the plasmid but leaves the genes responsible for the transfer intact! Now you must “recombine” the plasmid with the DNA fragment coding for the specific characteristic you want. Once the plasmid and the new DNA piece are mixed together they must be joined. Ligase is a molecule that helps to join the exposed ends of the plasmid with the new DNA piece. Ligase acts like tape, binding the pieces together. The new plasmid is put back into the agrobacterium and when the bacterium replicates, the new DNA will too.

      1. Define the terms in bold.
      2. Write down, in your own words, the three main steps of recombinant DNA technology.
      3. Discuss as a group and as a whole class the ways that you could remove a section of DNA from one gene and insert it into Plasmid DNA.
        • What would you need to consider before cutting the desired gene out?
        • What would you need to consider before inserting the new gene?
      4. What is your least favorite food? What specific quality about that food do you dislike? What other food could you use to help modify your food?
      5. Write up the laboratory procedures you would use, in detail, to modify your least favorite food. You should begin with extracting the desired trait from the first organism and end with how the “new” gene is recombined into the DNA of your least favorite food.
      6. Removing the desired gene from the linear cacao DNA:
        1. Pick up your restriction enzyme (scissors).
        2. Beginning on the top of your cacao DNA ladder at the end that indicates “start” (the 5’ end) read the bases of the strand until you have read an AGCT sequence all in a row in that order.
        3. Use your restriction enzyme (scissors) to make a cut after the A in the four base sequence.
        4. Continue to make cuts after the A in every four-base AGCT sequence.
        5. Now begin reading the DNA on the bottom strand of your cacao DNA ladder. Start reading from the end that indicates “start” and look for an AGCT sequence all in a row in that order.
        6. As before, make a cut after the A in every four-base AGCT sequence.
        7. One cut on the top cacao DNA strand should be two bases (rungs) away from one cut on the bottom cacao DNA strand. Cut through the hydrogen bonds right down the middle of the DNA ladder in order to connect the two closest cuts.
        8. Repeat this step on the opposite end of the DNA ladder. You should make a total of two cuts down the middle of the ladder, right through the hydrogen bonds.
        9. Remove the strip of DNA that comes out of the DNA ladder. This piece of DNA should have two exposed rungs and a central portion of the ladder intact. It contains the chocolate-flavor gene.
        10. Put this DNA aside for the moment and move on to the plasmid.
      7. Getting the plasmid ready for insertion of the gene
        1. Cut your circular plasmid out so that it looks like a large doughnut ring (make sure the middle of the doughnut ring is cut out).
        2. Each of the two strands of the circular plasmid is to be read in a certain direction as indicated by the arrows on the plasmid.
        3. Beginning on the outside at the arrow, start reading along the plasmid in the direction of the arrow until you come across an AGCT sequence all in a row.
        4. With your restriction enzyme (scissors), make a shallow cut (only to the middle of the ring) after the A in every AGCT sequence.
        5. Now going in the opposite direction read along the inside loop of the plasmid, reading until you come across the AGCT sequence on the inside DNA strand.
        6. With your restriction enzyme, make a shallow cut after the A in every AGCT sequence.
        7. Once again, each cut on the inside loop should be two rungs (bases G, C) away from a cut on the outside loop.
        8. Cut through the hydrogen bonds right down the middle of the plasmid loop in order to connect each of the two closest cuts.
        9. With the final cut, open the loop and look closely at the two exposed rungs.
      8. Insertion of the New Gene into the Plasmid (Recombination)
        1. Look at the strip of DNA that you removed from the cacao DNA.
        2. Compare this strip with the cut-open plasmid DNA.
        3. Can you see how they match together? The two pieces of DNA fit together like a puzzle.
        4. Match the shapes as well as the bases (A goes with T and C goes with G).
        5. Take out your ligase (tape) and insert the cacao DNA into the plasmid loop.
        6. You just inserted the cacao gene for chocolate flavor into the plasmid, and now the plasmid can be used to carry the cacao chocolate-flavor gene into the cherry plant!
      9. How can we use our knowledge of DNA to make specific foods taste better?
      10. How can this technology be applied to other areas?

    Choose an Animal
    1. Take an animal card and describe 3-5 features of the animal that make it unique
    2. What is an environment that the animal lives in?
    3. What characteristics does the animal have that makes it fit for this environment?
    4. Choose another environment. What characteristics does the animal have that help it in future generations?
    5. Write a two-paragraph article about how one of these animals evolved into the animal that it is today.

    Circulatory System: Recovery Time
    1. What does heart rate have to do with fitness? Answer as best as you can, given what you know.  Your answer should be at least two sentences long!
    2. Find a partner.  Take your resting pulse rate over 30 seconds, then multiply the value by two to get your beats per minute. It is very important that you master the technique of taking a pulse and obtain consistent values before doing the exercises. Readings should be within three to five beats per minute during the resting rate calculation. Whatever method you choose (wrist, neck, or chest), you should use that method for the entire experiment.
    3. Average the three resting rate trials and multiply the average by two to determine resting heart rate per minute for each person. What might cause any variability in resting heart rates between you and other students?
    4. Record the resting heart rates for each person in your group.
    5. When you collect heart-rate data it is important that you collect data at exactly one-minute intervals after the initial pulse measurement (0) is taken at the moment the exercise is done; each minute includes the time that you are counting the heartbeats. You now need to choose what your exercise will be in your group; you can choose something like jumping jacks or pushups. You should choose a low number for your first trial, double that amount for your second trial, and quadruple that amount for your third trial. Perform the experiment by having each person do the exercise for the required repetitions, then record their pulse for at least three minutes, until their pulse returns approximately to their resting rate.
      Repetitions of Exercise Pulse 1 minute after exercise Pulse 2 minutes after exercise Pulse 3 minutes after exercise Recovery Time
      (Original Number:) ____ ___ minutes
      (Double the Original Number:) ____ ___ minutes
      (Triple the Original Number:) ____ ___ minutes
    6. Determine the range (minimum and maximum) for the y-axis of a “Recovery Time” graph. The range should include the highest heart rate per minute among students as well as the lowest heart rate per minute (including resting heart rates, which will also be plotted). Now, plot the “Recovery Time” graph by using “Repetitions of Exercise” as your x-axis and “Recovery Time” as your y-axis.
    7. What does the slope of your graph mean?
    8. How is recovery rate connected to fitness?
    9. Discuss what ways recovery rates could be improved.
    10. How could someone with an ideal body weight still be considered unfit?

    Circulatory System: The Heart

    About the Heart

    The human circulatory system is organized into two major circulations. One circulation goes to and from the lungs in order to get oxygen into the blood, and the other major circulation goe to and from the rest of the body. Each has its own pump with both pumps in a single organ—the heart. The human heart is a specialized, four-chambered muscle that maintains the blood flow in the circulatory system. It lies immediately behind the sternum, or breastbone, and between the lungs. The apex, or bottom of the heart, is tilted to the left side. At rest, the heart pumps about 59 mL (2 oz) of blood per beat and 5 liters (5 quarts) per minute. During exercise it pumps 120-220 mL (4-7.3 oz) of blood per beat and 20-30 liters (21-32 quarts) per minute. The adult human heart is about the size of a fist and weighs about 250-350 grams (9 ounces).

    Beating of the Heart

    The human heart begins beating early in fetal life and continues regular beating throughout the life span of the individual. If the heart stops beating for more than 3 or 4 minutes permanent brain damage may occur. Blood flow to the heart muscle itself also depends on the continued beating of the heart and if this flow is stopped for more than a few minutes, as in a heart attack, the heart muscle may be damaged to such a great extent that it may be irreversibly stopped.

    The heart is made up of two muscle masses. One of these forms the two atria (the upper chambers) of the heart, and the other forms the two ventricles (the lower chambers). Both atria contract or relax at the same time, as do both ventricles. An electrical impulse is generated at regular intervals in a specialized region of the right atrium called the pacemaker. The impulse spreads across the atria, then a fraction of a second later the atrial muscle contracts.

    The ventricles form a single muscle mass separate from the atria. When the electrical impulse from the atria reaches the border of the atria and the ventricles, the contraction of the ventricle quickly follows the electrical impulse. From this pattern it can be seen that both atria will contract simultaneously and that both ventricles will contract simultaneously, with a brief delay between the contraction of the two parts of the heart.

    The rate at which the cells of the pacemaker start electrical impulses is determined by the nervous system, which sends nerve branches to the heart. In adults at rest this is between 60 and 74 beats a minute. In infants and young children it may be between 100 and 120 beats a minute. Tension, exertion, or fever may cause the rate of the heart to vary between 55 and 200 beats a minute.

    Anatomy of the Heart: Overview

    The two sides of the human heart are separated by walls, the interatrial septum (which divides the right and left atria) and the interventricular septum (which divides the left and right ventricles). The right side of the heart pumps blood through the pulmonary circulation (the lungs) while the left side of the heart pumps blood through the systemic circulation (the body).

    Anatomy of the Heart: Pulmonary Circulation

    In the pulmonary circulation, blood that lacks oxygen (deoxygenated blood) enters the heart by way of the caudal vena cava (deoxygenated blood coming from the body) or the cranial vena cava (deoxygenated blood coming from the head) through the right atrium.  Blood then passes from the right atrium to the right ventricle by way of the right atrio-ventricular valve. Once in the right ventricle, blood passes through the pulmonary semilunar valve to the pulmonary artery to the lungs.

    Anatomy of the Heart: Systemic Circulation

    Blood returns to the heart from the lungs as oxygenated blood.  Passing through the pulmonary vein, blood enters the left atrium. Blood then passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle by way of the left atrio-ventricular valve.  Once in the left ventricle, blood passes through the aortic semilunar valve to the aorta in order to circulate through the entire body.

    Blood Vessels

    Arteries, veins and capillaries are the main blood vessels in the human body. Arteries carry blood away from the heart, veins carry blood back to the heart, and capillaries deliver oxygenated blood to individual cells. Arteries tend to be thick-walled because they have to withstand higher pressure than do veins, which tend to be thin-walled. Capillaries are the thinnest blood vessels, getting down to one cell thick in order to deliver oxygen to every single cell in the body.

    Labeling

    The diagram below shows a section through the heart seen from the same direction as the external view in question 1.

    a) Label the following structures:
    right and left atria, right and left ventricles, caudal and cranial vena cava, aorta, pulmonary artery and veinright and left atrio-ventricular valves, pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves.

    Image:Heart LS unlabelled.JPG

    b) On the diagram of the heart shown above indicate the direction of blood flow through the heart. Use red to show the pathway of oxygen-rich blood and blue the pathway of oxygen-poor blood.

    Complete

    atria; right hand side; vena cava; ventricles; atrioventricular valves; pacemaker;
    pulmonary artery; veins; arteries; left hand side; aorta, coronary artery;
    1. The top two chambers of the heart are called ___________
    2. These structures stop blood flowing backwards into the atria.
    3. This side of the heart receives oxygenated blood.
    4. This is the largest artery in the body. It carries blood to the brain and organs.
    5. These are blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart.
    6. This structure sets the speed of the heart beats.
    7. This blood vessel supplies the heart muscle with oxygenated blood?

    Fill in the name of the blood vessel in the table below.

    Name of blood vessel Blood? Walls? Towards oraway from heart
    8. ____________ Oxygenated Thin Towards
    9. ____________ Oxygenated Thick Away from
    10. ___________ Deoxygenated Thick Away from
    11. ___________ Deoxygenated Thin Towards

    12. What is the odd one out?

    a) Right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, caudal vena cava, aorta,
    b) Left atrium, left ventricle, right ventricle, pulmonary veins, aorta, coronary artery

    13. Arrange these events in the correct order starting with F.

    A. The left ventricle contracts and blood flows along the aorta to the body
    B. The blood flows through the right atrio-ventricular valve into the right ventricle.
    C. Oxygenated blood flows along the pulmonary veins into the left atrium
    D. The blood passes through the left atrio-ventricular valve into the left ventricle
    E. The left atrium contracts
    F. Deoxygenated blood flows from the caudal and cranial vena cavae into the right atrium.
    G. The deoxygenated blood picks up oxygen
    H. The right atrium contracts
    I. The right ventricle contracts and blood flows along the pulmonary artery to the lungs

    14. The first heart sound is produced by:

    a) The semilunar valves closing
    b) The atrio-ventricular valves closing
    c) A hole in the heart
    d) Malfunction of the valves

    15. The second heart sound is caused by:

    a) The semilunar valves closing
    b) The semilunar and atrio-ventricular valves closing
    c) The pacemaker
    d) The atrio-ventricular valves closing

    Classification

    [Note: You need an animal card to complete this assignment – and hand it back in when you’re done!]

    1. Put these classifications in the correct order: Order, Species, Kingdom, Class, Genus, Phylum, Family
    2. Come up with a way to remember the order of these classifications, for example: “King Phillip Came Over For Great Sandwiches”. You can make a phrase like this, a drawing, or any other way that includes every classification and helps you remember the classifications. When you hand in the homework, you will be quizzed on the seven classifications (it is worth 7 points of the grade), so don’t just copy off of someone else!
    3. Using the animal card, identify all seven classifications for this animal (if the phylum is missing, it’s “Vertebrates”) keeping in mind that the genus and species are directly below the animal’s name on the back of the card.
    4. Answer:
      1. Which classification contains the most animals?
      2. Which classification contains only one animal?
      3. What is the relationship between the order of the classifications and the amount of animals in each classification?

    Classification: Your Own Key

    From Wendy Zielinski

    1. Find at least seven images from a magazine that are somehow related.
    2. Arrange the images into two groups based on some difference. Write two questions that would describe the difference between the two groups. Many times, questions are opposite of each other. One answer leads to question 2, one answer leads to question 3.
    3. Take the group described by the answer that leads to question 2 and divide that group again based on a different characteristic. Write another 2 questions to describe the difference.
    4. Continue dividing the groups and writing the questions until all of the images have been described and labeled with a two-word name.
    5. Glue your images to a piece of paper and number each one. This is your poster. Make an answer key for your images.
    6. The answers you are expecting need to be factual. Final names do not have to be factual.
    7. Turn in your poster, your questions and your answer document.
    8. Once your project is in, you will be grading a classmate’s key and someone will be grading yours.
    9. Grade according to the following rubric:
      1. Your name:
      2. Key you’re grading:
      3. A minimum of seven pictures (2 points each):
      4. Pictures numbered (1 point each):
      5. Key has 2 questions per number (2 points each set of questions):
      6. Each answer has a two-word name (2 points each answer, 1 point for one name):
      7. Each picture was able to be identified through the questions (2 points each):
      8. Neatness (6 points possible, 3 for poster, 3 for questions):
      9. Total points:

    Classroom Equilibrium
    1. Create your own food web of eight organisms; it should have at least two at each level (producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer).
    2. If you had to fit this habitat in a place the size of the science room, estimate the numbers of each organism (in your food web) that there could be. Be realistic: don’t include 10 lions, because they would never be able to live together and find food in such a small space!
    3. Now that you’ve established equilibrium(a balance in the ecosystem), what effect on the numbers of organisms would the following have:
      1. Twice as much rainfall
      2. Half as much sunlight
      3. Monthly fires
      4. Steady increase in air pollution (carbon dioxide)

    Climate Change Debate

    You will be preparing for a debate about the causes of climate change.  For this debate, you will be using the template available here or in the book as “Debate” in the “Projects” section.  You will choose team members to do the following:

    • Write the opening statement
    • Write the 15 questions
    • Write responses to the questions you think will be asked
    • Help other team members with their assigned tasks

    The topic for this debate is solution to climate change.  You will need to read several articles in order to form an opinion for or against the following statement: “The best solution to climate change is to change the way that we live; technology can help us limit climate change but technology is not the solution.”

    CO2 and You

    Each time you take a breath, an exchange of gases occurs between you and the atmosphere. You take in oxygen-rich air and push out carbon dioxide gas. Oxygen molecules are used to break down food and provide energy for everything you do. One of the products of this process is carbon dioxide. In this activity, you will explore how physical activity affects carbon dioxide production.

    Materials

    • 4 medium test tubes
    • bromthymol blue solution
    • test-tube rack
    • 4 straws
    • 10-mL graduated cylinder
    • timer or clock with second hand

    Safety

    Use a stream of water to rinse bromthymol blue solution from your eyes, skin, or clothing. Try not to inhale the vapors. Tell your teacher if you break a glass object. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water before leaving the lab.

    Procedure

    You will use bromthymol blue (BTB) to test for the presence of CO2. The color of BTB will change when CO2 is added to water.

    1. Put on your safety goggles, plastic gloves, and apron.
    2. Label two test tubes with the letters A and B. Put 10 mL of water and a few drops of BTB solution in each test tube.
    3. First determine the CO2 released while at rest. Your partner will time you during this step. When your partner says “go,” slowly blow air through a straw into the bottom of test tube A. CAUTION: Do not inhale through the straw.
    4. When the solution changes color, your partner should say “stop” and then record how long the color change took.
    5. Jog in place for 2 minutes. CAUTION: Do not do this activity if you have a medical condition that interferes with exercise. If you feel faint or dizzy, stop immediately and sit down.
    6. Blow air through a straw into the solution in test tube B. Your partner will watch for the color change and record the time.
    7. Trade roles with your partner. Repeat steps 2–6.

    Data Table

    Time at Rest

    Time After Exercise

    You

    Partner

    Analyze and Conclude

    1. What color was the starting solution of water and BTB? What color was the solution after you exhaled into it?
    2. How did exercise affect the time it took the solution to change color? How did your results compare to your partner’s?
    3. How does exercise affect cellular respiration? How do you know?

    Build Science Skills

    BTB is an acid-base indicator. It is blue in solutions that are basic or neutral, such as pure water. Adding CO2 to water will cause the solution to become acidic. The solution will turn green and then yellow as the acidity increases. Suppose you took a sprig of Elodea, which is a water plant, and placed it in the acidic solution in one test tube. Predict what would happen if you were to place the test tube in direct sunlight. Explain your thinking.

    Coat Color in the Rock Pocket Mouse

    Watch the Video!

     

    Codon Bingo

    How to play:

    1. Fill in your bingo card with amino acids, but don’t repeat any of them.
    2. When a DNA codon is read off, transcribe it to RNA, then translate it into the amino acid. Place a marker on the square that corresponds to that amino acid.

    Cohesion & Surface Tension

    Terms
    Cohesion
    Water molecules are attracted to other water molecules. The oxygen end of water has a negative charge and the hydrogen end has a positive charge. The hydrogens of one water molecule are attracted to the oxygen from other water molecules. This attractive force is what gives water its cohesive properties.
    Surface Tension
    Surface tension is the name we give to the cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water. The cohesion of water molecules forms a surface “film” or “skin.” Some substances may reduce the cohesive force of water, which will reduce the strength of the surface “skin” of the water.

    Drops of Water on a Penny
    1. Take a Guess: How many drops of water can fit on one side of a penny? _____
    2. Rinse a penny in tap water and dry completely. Place the penny on paper towel.
    3. Use an pipette to place drops of WATER on the penny (one at a time) until ANY amount of water runs over the edge of the penny.
    4. Record the number of drops for that trial in the table.
    5. Repeat Steps 2 – 4 three more times before calculating your average.

    Testing Liquid on a Penny
    1. Start with a “clean” penny. Rinse the penny in tap water and dry completely. Be sure to remove as much residue as possible – without using soap!
    2. Hold the penny with the tweezers provided, then dip it into the TESTING LIQUID. Allow extra liquid to drip off the penny into the container before proceeding to the next step.
    3. Place penny on dry spot on a paper towel. Place drops of WATER on the penny (one at a time) until ANY amount of water runs over the edge of the penny.
    4. Record your observations and the number of drops for that trial in the table.
    5. Repeat Steps 1 – 4 three more times before calculating the average.

    Analysis
    1. Explain your results from both parts of the experiment in terms of cohesion and surface tension.
    2. How do your results compare to any other groups in your class? Provide at least 2 possible reasons for any similarities and differences you identified.
    3. Why did we perform more than one trial? What benefits are there to repeated trials?
    4. What is the control for this experiment? What is the independent variable? What is the dependent variable?
    5. How would you change this experiment if you were able to do it again? For example, test different types of soap (dish soap, hand soap, laundry soap, etc.), compare heads vs. tails or old penny vs. new penny

    Paperclips in a Glass
    Take a guess … how many paperclips can you fit into a full beaker before the water runs over? Now perform an experiment to determine the answer.

    Fill-ins
    Cohesion – Water molecules are _______________ to other water molecules. The _____________ end of water has a _____________ charge and the _____________ end has a _____________ charge. The hydrogens of one water ______________ are attracted to the oxygen from other water molecules. This attractive __________ is what gives water its _____________ properties.
    Surface Tension – Surface tension is the name we give to the ______________ of water molecules at the ___________ of a body of ___________. The cohesion of water molecules forms a surface “_________” or “_________.” Some substances may ____________ the cohesive force of water, which will reduce the _______________ of the surface “skin” of the water.

    Comparing Atmospheres

    Many scientists think that Earth’s early atmosphere may have been made up of gases similar to those released by a volcano. The circle graphs show the gases in the atmosphere today and the gases released by a volcano.

    comparingatmospheres

    Analyze and Conclude

    1. Compare the two circle graphs. In which graph is the composition of gases most like Earth’s early atmosphere?
    2. Which gas is most abundant in Earth’s atmosphere today? What percentage of that gas may have been present in Earth’s early atmosphere?
    3. Which gas was probably most abundant in the early atmosphere?
    4. Where did the water in today’s oceans probably come from? Explain your thinking.

    Build Science Skills

    Green algae and plants existed on Earth before animals. How did their appearance help to alter the composition of the air and set the stage for the evolution of animals? Hint: What ability do algae and plants have that animals do not?

    Comparing Bones

    The term forelimb refers to the front leg or arm of a vertebrate. The bones in the forelimbs of modern vertebrates are homologous. These forelimbs evolved from the forelimbs of an extinct lobe-finned fish that lived more than 380 million years ago. If modern vertebrates all had different origins, it would be unlikely for them to have such similar structures.

    In this activity, you will compare the bones in the forelimb of a human, cat, and lizard.

    Materials

    • scissors
    • tape

    Procedure

    Look at the diagram of the human arm. Note how the upper arm (humerus), lower arm (ulna and radius), and hand bones fit together. Use the diagram as a model to help you piece together the forelimbs of a cat and lizard.

    comparingbones

    1. Cut out the drawings of bones on the next page.
    2. Move the parts around to form a cat forelimb and a lizard forelimb. NOTE: The drawings are not drawn at actual size.
    3. After you have pieced together both forelimbs, tape the limbs onto a sheet of notebook paper. Label the parts of each forelimb and add a label for the animal name.

    Analyze and Conclude

    1. How did the drawing of the human arm help you assemble the cat and lizard forelimbs?
    2. Describe how you decided which bones belonged to which animal.
    3. Describe the similarities among the three forelimbs. How would these compare in actual size?
    4. Use your structures and your experience to compare the ways that the three species use their forelimbs.

    Build Science Skills

    How do these homologous structures provide evidence to support the theory that vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor?

    comparingbones2

    Comparing Surface Area and Volume

    In this activity, you will construct a set of paper cubes. The cubes will represent cells at different stages of growth. After you construct your cubes, you will calculate the volume, surface area, and ratio of surface area to volume of each cube.

    Materials

    • patterns for 6-cm, 5-cm, 4-cm, and 3-cm cubes
    • scissors
    • tape or glue

    Procedure

    1. Cut out the patterns on the following pages and fold them along the dashed lines. Use the tabs to tape or glue the sides together. Do not tape down the top side.
    2. Calculate the surface area of each cube. Find the area of one side of the cube and multiply that area by the number of sides. Record your results in the data table on the next page.
    3. Calculate the volume of each cube. Multiply width times length times height. Record the results in the data table on the next page.
    4. Divide the surface area by the volume to find the ratio of surface area to volume. Record your results in the data table.

    Data Table

    Width of Side

    Surface Area (cm2)

    Volume (cm3)

    Ratio of Surface Area to Volume

    6 cm

    5 cm

    4 cm

    3 cm

    1. Use your data to calculate the number of 3-cm cubes that would fit in the same volume as the 6-cm cube. Also calculate the total surface area for the smaller cubes.

    Analyze and Conclude

    1. Describe the function of a cell membrane and its relationship to what happens inside a cell.
    2. How did the ratio of surface area to volume change as the size of the cubes decreased?
    3. As a cell grows, what happens to the amount of activity in the cell and the need for materials to be exchanged across the cell membrane?

    Build Science Skills

    How could the growth of a cell affect its ability to survive?

    surfacearea2 surfacearea

    surfacearea

    Comparing the Domains

    Until the twentieth century, classifying life forms was relatively simple. Most biologists classified living things as either plant or animal. Then, in the 1950s, the picture became more complicated as scientists looked more closely. By the 1970s, there were five kingdoms. Four were characterized by eukaryotic cells: plants, animals, fungi, and protists. The bacteria were the one group distinguished by prokaryotic cells. Looking even more closely, scientists realized that a certain group of bacteria had cells that didn’t really fit with bacteria or with the eukaryotes. The five kingdoms were replaced by six kingdoms and three domains.

    This table compares the three domains and six kingdoms. Use the information in the table to answer the Analyze and Conclude questions on the next page.

    Classification of Living Things

    Domain

    Bacteria

    Archaea

    Eukarya

    Kingdom Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista” Fungi Plantae Animalia
    Cell type Prokaryote Prokaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote Eukaryote
    Cell structures Cell walls with peptidoglycan Cell walls without peptidoglycan Some cellulose cell walls; chloroplasts in some Cell walls of chitin Cell walls of cellulose, chloroplasts No cell walls, no chloroplasts
    Number of cells Unicellular Unicellular Most unicellular; some multicellular; some colonial Most multicellular; some unicellular Most multicellular; some green algae unicellular Multicellular
    Mode of nutrition Autotroph or heterotroph Autotroph or heterotroph Autotroph or heterotroph Heterotroph Autotroph Heterotroph
    Examples Streptococcus, Escherichia coli Methanogens, halophiles Paramecium, amoeba, giant kelp, slime molds Mushrooms, yeasts Mosses, ferns, flowering plants Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals

    Analyze and Conclude

    1. Which domain includes four kingdoms? What are those kingdoms?
    2. Which kingdom has cells that lack cell walls?
    3. Which domain includes multicellular organisms?
    4. How do all members of domain Eukarya differ from all members of domains Archaea and Bacteria?
    5. On the basis of the information in the table, how are the members of domain Archaea similar to those of domain Bacteria?

    Build Science Skills

    If you were to observe a multicellular organism without cell walls while looking under a microscope, in which domain and kingdom would you classify it? Explain your reasoning.

     

    Composting

    With the other members of your group, develop a plan to compost at Shaw.  After you read this infosheet, your plan should include the following:

    • A location on campus to compost.
    • The appropriate composting structure / bin.
    • Where the material for compost will come from.
    • The maintenance for the composting bin.
    • How you can educate other students at Shaw about composting.

    Frederick C. Michel, Jr., Joe E. Heimlich, Harry A. J. Hoitink

    Mow your lawn often and let the clippings lie. This is the best use for grass clippings. Composting is another solution. Composting is a practical and convenient way to handle yard trimmings such as leaves, grass, thatch, chipped brush, and plant cuttings. It can be easier and cheaper than bagging or paying to have them removed. Compost also improves your soil and the plants growing in it. If you have a garden, a lawn, trees, shrubs, or even planter boxes, you have a use for compost.

    Why Does Compost Make Soil Healthier?

    Compost returns organic matter to the soil in a usable form. Organic matter in the soil improves plant growth by: stimulating the growth of beneficial microorganisms, loosening heavy clay soils to allow better root penetration; improving the capacity to hold water and nutrients particularly in sandy soils; and adding essential nutrients to any soil. Improving your soil is the first step toward improving plant health. Healthy plants help clean air, conserve soil, and beautify landscapes.

    How Does Composting Help the Environment?

    Yard trimmings and kitchen scraps use up valuable space in landfills-space that is running out fast! These materials make up 20 to 30 percent of all household wastes. Because of their high moisture content, grass clippings also lower the efficiency of incineration systems. The use of compost can also reduce the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers in your yard.

    What Can I Compost?

    All yard trimmings will work as a mulch and for composting, but do not use diseased or infested plants without composting them first. Yard trimmings such as leaves, grass clippings, weeds, thatch, and the remains of garden plants make excellent compost. Other good additions to a compost pile include ground brush, wood ash, and kitchen scraps such as fruit and vegetable peelings, egg shells, and coffee grounds that would otherwise be thrown in the garbage. Care must be taken when composting kitchen scraps. Do not compost meat, bones, and fatty foods such as cheese, salad dressing, and cooking oil. These foods ferment or putrify, cause odors, and can attract rodents and other nocturnal animals that can be pests. Only experts in composting should attempt to compost these materials.

    One concern with composting is the fate of lawn care pesticides. Grass clippings and leaves treated with these products should not be used as a mulch immediately after application and mowing, but should be composted. The most widely used pesticides degrade rapidly during composting or become strongly bound to organic matter in the compost. Their degradation is accelerated by the high temperatures and moist conditions that occur in a compost pile.

    The Essentials of Composting

    With the following principles in mind, everyone can make excellent use of organic wastes.

    Biological Process

    What happens in a compost pile? Bacteria, the most numerous and effective microbes, are the first to break down plant tissue. Fungi and protozoans soon join the bacteria. Often, a white layer forms just beneath the surface of the compost. This is usually due to fungi and actinomycetes, a class of filamentous bacteria. Springtails, mites, and other small insects, as well as earthworms, also play a role in decomposition once the compost has cooled.

    Materials

    Anything growing in your yard is potential food for these microbes. Microorganisms use the carbon in leaves or woody wastes as an energy source. Nitrogen provides the microbes with the raw element of proteins and nucleic acids to build their bodies.

    Everything organic has a given ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C:N) in its tissues. A C:N ratio of 30:1 is ideal for the activity of compost microbes. This balance can be achieved by mixing. Table 1 can help you judge the ratio of your compost ingredients. Composts often are deficient in nitrogen when wood wastes are added to the mixture. This can be corrected by adding 1 pound of urea per cubic yard of compost mixture.

    Table 1. Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio
    Food wastes 15:1
    Sawdust, wood, paper 400:1
    Straw 80:1
    Grass clippings 15:1
    Leaves 50:1
    Fruit wastes 35:1
    Rotted manures 20:1
    Cornstalks 60:1
    Alfalfa hay 12:1

    Surface Area

    The more surface area the microorganisms have to work on, the faster the materials decompose. Chopping garden wastes with a shovel or machete, or running them through a shredding machine or lawn mower speeds composting.

    Volume

    A large compost pile insulates itself and holds the heat of microbial activity. Its center will be warmer than its edges. Piles smaller than three feet cubed (27 cu. ft.; 3-4 ft tall) have trouble holding this heat in the winter, while piles larger than five feet cubed (125 cu. ft.; 5-6 ft tall) do not allow enough air to reach the microbes at the center. These proportions are of importance if your goal is fast, high temperature composting. Large piles are useful for composting diseased plants or trees as the high temperatures will kill pathogens and insects.

    Moisture and Aeration

    All life on Earth, including compost microbes, needs a certain amount of water and air to sustain itself. Microbes function best when the compost heap has many air passages and is about as moist as a wrung-out sponge. Extremes of sun or rain can adversely affect this moisture balance. Generally, the moisture content of the compost should be 50 to 60% on a total weight basis. Wet piles that leach water are deficient in oxygen, and can ferment and cause odor problems. Never cover compost piles with plastic because this does not permit introduction of air. Cured composts can be covered, but this can also cause problems. Compost blankets allow for air exchange but shed rainwater from piles.

    The larger the pile, the higher the temperature and the faster the composting proceeds, but only up to a certain point. At temperatures higher than 160 degrees F, composting slows down and charring or burning begins. This can become a problem in dry composts, particularly in the summer.

    How to Prepare and Use Compost

    Remove grass and sod cover from the area where you construct your compost pile to allow direct contact of the materials with soil microorganisms. The following “recipe” for constructing your compost heap is recommended for best results:

    • 1st layer: 3-4″ of chopped brush or other coarse material on top of the soil surface. This material allows air circulation around the base of the heap.
    • 2nd layer: 6-8″ of mixed scraps, leaves, grass clippings, etc. Materials should be “sponge damp.”
    • 3rd layer: 1″of soil serves as an inoculant by adding microorganisms to the heap.
    • 4th layer: (optional) 2-3″ of manure to provide the nitrogen needed by microorganisms. Sprinkle lime, wood ash, and/or rock phosphate over the layer of manure to reduce the heap’s acidity. Add water if the manure is dry. Add one pound of urea fertilizer or 10 pounds of composted poultry manure per yard of leaves or ground brush if organic sources of nitrogen are not available. Soak these high carbon materials with water before composting. Manure generally should not be used in cities to reduce the potential for fly problems.
    • 5th layer: Repeat steps 1-4 until the bin is full. Scoop out a “basin” at the top to catch rainwater under summer conditions.

    A properly made heap will reach temperatures of about 140 degrees F in four to five days. At this time, you will notice the pile “settling.” This is a good sign that your heap is working properly.

    After 3-4 weeks, fork the materials into a new pile, turning the outside of the old heap into the center of the new pile. Add water if necessary. It is best to turn your compost a second or third time. The compost should be ready to use within three to four months. A heap started in late spring can be ready for use in the autumn. Start another heap in autumn for use in the spring.

    You can make compost even faster by turning the pile more often. Check the internal temperature regularly; when it decreases substantially (usually after about a week), turn the pile.

    Compost is ready to use when it is dark brown, crumbly, and earthy-smelling. Let it stabilize for a few extra days and screen it through a 1/2″ screen if you want the finest product for germination of seedlings. Compost generally should be at least 4-6 months old for use with plant seedlings. Apply a 1-2″ layer of compost, and work it in well where you want to grow root crops. Leave it on the surface or work it into the surface 1-2″ of the soil for most applications. It is best to keep organic matter near the soil surface. This is known as mulch gardening. It is much easier to control weeds in gardens mulched with compost between rows of plants. Compost used here also does not have to be as decomposed as that worked into seed beds. Have the soil tested for pH and major nutrients (N, P, and K) every two to four years and adjust the amount of lime, ash, fertilizers, etc., added to your compost pile on the basis of feedback from your county agent or Master Gardener. Table 2 is a guide to more efficient composting.

    Table 2. Guide to More Efficient Composting

    Symptoms Problem Solution
    The compost has a bad odor. Not enough air. Solution Turn it. Add dry material if the pile is too wet.
    The center of the pile is dry. Not enough water. Moisten and turn the pile.
    The compost is damp and warm only in the middle. Too small. Collect more material and mix the old ingredients into a new pile. Turn the pile.
    The heap is damp and sweet-smelling, but still will not heat up. Lack of nitrogen. Mix in a nitrogen source like fresh grass clippings, manure, composted poultry manure, bloodmeal, or urea fertilizer.

    Compost Bins That Can Be Used at Home

    Snow Fence Bin

    Snow Fence Bin

    Bins made with prefabricated snow fencing are simple to make and easy to move and store. To build this bin, buy the appropriate length of prefabricated fencing, and fasten two-by-fours as corner posts to the bottom to form a circle.


    Woven Wire Bin

    Woven Wire Bin

    One easy to make, economical container requires only a length of woven wire fencing. Multiply the diameter you want for the compost heap by 3.2 for the length of fencing to purchase. Fasten the ends with wire or three or four small chain snaps (available at any hardware store) to make a circle.


    Block Bin

    Block Bin

    Compost bins can be made with cement blocks or rocks. Just lay the blocks without mortar; leave spaces between each block to permit aeration. Pile them up to form three sides of a square container or a three-bin unit. This bin is sturdy, durable, and easily accessible. Keep the bin at least 3 inches away from the walls of your house to prevent deterioration of siding.


    Wooden Pallet Bin

    Wooden Pallet Bin

    Covered bins allow convenient protection from pests and heavy rains. Construct bins with removable fronts or sides so that materials can be easily turned. Old wooden pallets can be used for construction. Wire mesh can be substituted for wooden sides to increase air flow.


    Turning Bins

    Turning Bins

    This is a series of three or more bins that allows you to make compost in a short time by turning the materials on a regular schedule. Turning bins are most appropriate for gardeners with a large volume of yard trimmings and the desire to make a high-quality compost. You can also turn your compost with only one bin by removing the bin from around the heap, setting up the empty bin nearby, and forking the material into the now empty bin.

    Rotating drum bins Rotating drum bins, which turn using a hand crank, are also commercially available. If your own kitchen, yard, and garden do not generate enough material to fill your bin, ask your neighbors for their clippings and leaves, or start a neighborhood composting project.

    Simple heaps

    Yard trimmings can easily be composted in open heaps. Bins are not required. When food wastes are added, however, the compost may have to be confined in bins that keep out animals such as raccoons, skunks, etc. City ordinances against backyard composting were passed in many areas of the United States decades ago because these pests and flies were not controlled. Food wastes and manures can easily cause fly problems unless great care is taken to cover all such materials with a foot-thick layer of cured compost, wood, or other yard trimmings. Always bury food scraps deep in the compost pile.


    Other options

    Prefabricated plastic compost bins can also be purchased at hardware stores and gardening stores, and from catalogs. These are sometimes available from your town or city at below market cost.


    Mulching

    Woody yard trimmings, leaves, and grass clippings can be used as a mulch for weed control and water retention by simply spreading them beneath plants. For woody materials up to 1″ in diameter, rent or purchase a chipper/shredder, or cut with hand tools. Tree services, if they are in your neighborhood, often will deliver wood chips free. Chips can also be used for informal garden paths. Make sure that the chipped wood has been stored in a heap tall enough to reach temperatures of 110-160 degrees F so that the pathogens and pests are killed by heat treatment. The addition of one pound of urea or 10 pounds of composted poultry manure per cubic yard of shredded wood with lots of water speeds the process.

    Mulching

    Don’t Bag It-The Lawn Maintenance Plan

    The “Don’t Bag It” lawn care plan can save the homeowner time, energy, fertilizers, pesticides, and money, and can reduce the amount of waste going to our landfills. The principle is simple: return clippings to your lawn. By leaving your clippings on the lawn and allowing them to work their way back into soil, you will improve soil health and reduce pesticide and fertilizer use.

    In fact, grass clippings contain valuable nutrients that can generate up to 25 percent of your lawn’s total fertilizer needs. A hundred pounds of grass clippings can generate and recycle as much as three to four pounds of nitrogen, one-half to one pound of phosphorus, and two to three pounds of potassium back to the lawn. These are the three most important nutrients needed by lawns, and are commonly supplied in lawn fertilizers. Also, grass clippings do not contribute to thatch (an organic debris layer between the soil and live grass) since grass clippings are 75-85 percent water and decompose readily.

    Why, then, do many homeowners bag grass clippings? Basically, it is a personal preference and habit most homeowners have acquired. Proper lawn care practices will usually eliminate surface clipping debris and ensure a successful “Don’t Bag It” program.

    In summary, by composting at home, you can help protect the environment, save money, and improve your soil at the same time.

    Conduction and Convection Lab
    1. Receive your assigned experiment from the table below.  Check the initial temperature, then start the experiment.
    2. While you are waiting for the experiment to complete, finish the 3rd and 4th columns of the table below.
    3. Once all experiments have concluded, fill in the table with all of the data, then plot the data as follows:
      • Use the experiment number as the independent variable
      • What will the dependent variable be? __________ .   Create a scale for the dependent variable that starts at 0 and has a reasonable maximum.
      • Plot points for each “initial temperature.”
      • For each warmer thermometer, make a red bar from the initial temperature point to the final temperature.
      • For each colder thermometer, make a blue bar from the initial temperature point to the final temperature.  The two colors may overlap.
    4. Look at your hypotheses and then look at the data.  For three experiments that you were most surprised by, write down why you think the data was different than expected in terms of conduction, convection and radiation.
    Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Experiment 4 Experiment 5
    Thermometer A placement Bottom of stairwell C Floor of room Ground-level window Bottom of ice-water bucket In direct sunlight
    Thermometer B placement Top of stairwell C Ceiling of room Classroom window Top of ice-water bucket In shade
    Conduction, Convection, or Radiation?
    Hypothesis
    Thermometers initial temperature
    Thermometer A final temperature
    Thermometer B final temperature
    Experiment 6 Experiment 7 Experiment 8 Experiment 9 Experiment 10
    Thermometer A placement 1″ below fluorescent light 1″ below incandescent light Direct contact with ice cube Direct contact with hot plate Direct contact with metal in ice bath
    Thermometer B placement 5 feet below fluorescent light 5 feet below incandescent light Direct contact with table holding ice cube Direct contact with table holding hot plate Direct contact with bucket holding ice bath
    Conduction, Convection, or Radiation?
    Hypothesis
    Thermometers initial temperature
    Thermometer A final temperature
    Thermometer B final temperature

    Contents of Lungs
    1. How many breaths do we take in a minute? Determine by counting not only your own breaths but someone else’s. Make sure to relax while counting and to not try and change how many breaths you are taking from normal. Repeat two more times and record all of the data.
    2. How many breaths do you take in an hour? A day? A year?
    3. Approximately how many breaths have you taken since you were born?
    4. What do we breathe in? Do we breathe in the same air we breathe out?
    5. You will perform the following experiment in order to answer this question:
      1. Put a few drops of red cabbage juice in a cup of water. What color is it?
      2. Blow air into a funnel from a hair dryer or other source into the cup. What color is it?
      3. Now blow into the water with a straw. What color is it? How long did it take to change?
      4. Finally, exercise briefly and blow into the water with a straw. What color is it? How long did it take to change?
    6. When we inhale, how much of our breath is oxygen and how much is carbon dioxide? When we exhale?
      Type of Air Oxygen Carbon Dioxide
      Inhaled Air 21% .04%
      Exhaled Air 16% 3.5%
    7. How much of the ½ liter or inhaled air is oxygen? Carbon dioxide?
    8. How much of the ½ liter of exhaled air is oxygen? Carbon dioxide?
    9. Compare the oxygen decrease to the carbon dioxide increase. A pie or bar chart can be used to illustrate this.
    10. How many liters of air do you breathe in daily?

    Cosmic Calendar

    January 1st of the one-year “Cosmic Calendar” represents the Big Bang, which scientists theorize is the beginning of cosmic time. “Today” is represented by the last possible moment on December 31st.

    1. What were ten of the important events that happened in the universe between the Big Bang and now?
    2. Individually, you will make a calendar with two sides: one for events in your life and one for events in the universe. You will use four pieces of paper attached on the short side or strips of paper provided by the teacher.
    3. Draw a line down the middle of the four strips. On the top, you will label the calendar with the dates in your life. You will start with your birth (e.g., 15 years ago) and work up to today (present day). Make sure that the space between each year is the same.
    4. On the bottom of the line, you will label the calendar with the dates of the universe. You will start with the Big Bang (13.7 billion years ago) and then work up to today, labeling every billion years. Make sure that the space between every billion years is the same! For the last billion years, label 500 million years ago (halfway), 250 million years ago (one quarter of the way) and 1 million years ago (one one-thousandth of the way!) on the timeline.
    5. For the ten important events in your life, make sure to include several that happened within the past few months, including the beginning of school and the beginning of today’s class. Make a sign or picture for each on a separate sheet of paper that you can tape to your timeline. Put each on the timeline where it occurred.
    6. For the ten important events in the universe, make a sign or picture for each on a separate sheet of paper that you can tape to your timeline. Put each on the timeline where it occurred.
    7. Share your estimates with the other students and post it up around the room.
    mya (million years ago) Event
    13,700 Big Bang; universe comes into being
    4,600 Earth comes into being
    3,500 First primitive life; single-celled prokaryotes
    1,000 First eukaryotes evolve; first multicellular organisms
    500 First vertebrate life
    430 First plants evolve
    400 First land animals evolve
    200 Dinosaurs evolve
    65 Dinosaur extinction
    5 Hominids branch off from other primates
    2 Homo habilis (the toolmaker) evolves
    1.60 Homo erectus (stands upright, can speak) evolves
    0.20 Homo sapiens evolves; adaptation to cooler climates with fire, housing, clothing
    0.10 Homo sapiens sapiens evolves; modern humans
    0.02 Last ice age peaks

    Cosmic Calendar: Toilet Paper

    Materials

    • One roll of toilet paper, 231 sheets or more.
    • Felt-tip marker(s) or fluid writing utensil(s), preferably several colors.
    • Clear tape for repairs.

    Procedures

    1. Starting at one end of a long hallway, unroll the toilet paper until you reach 230 squares.
    2. Label the events on the appropriate square of toilet paper with the event and the real date in mya.
    3. Take a look at all of the events. How long have humans been on Earth?
    4. What three things about the cosmic calendar surprise you? Why?

    Dates

    Sheets Event Geological time (Number of years before present) Comments
    0.00 Present 0

    0.0005

    Modern man

    10,000

    0.01

    Neanderthal man

    100,000

    0.03

    First use of fire

    500,000

    0.06

    Worldwide glaciation

    1,100,000

    0.07

    Homo erectus

    1,300,000

    0.08

    Linking of North and South America

    1,500,000

    0.08

    Oldest stone tools

    1,600,000

    1.15

    Beginning of Quaternary period (end Tertiary/Neogene)

    23,000,000

    0.15

    Australopithecus

    3,000,000

    0.50

    Beginning of Antarctic ice caps

    10,000,000

    0.50

    Opening of Red Sea

    10,000,000

    0.75

    Formation of Himalayan Mountains

    15,000,000

    1.15

    Beginning of Tertiary/Neogene period (end Paleogene)

    23,000,000

    1.25

    First evidence of ice at the poles

    25,000,000

    2.00

    Collision of India with Asia

    40,000,000

    2.50

    Early horses

    50,000,000

    2.50

    Separation of Australia and Antarctica

    50,000,000

    3.00

    Early primates

    60,000,000

    3.00

    Opening of Norwegian Sea and Baffin Bay

    60,000,000

    3.00

    Alps form

    60,000,000

    3.25

    Beginning of Tertiary/Paleogene period

    65,000,000

    3.25

    Beginning of Cenozoic Era

    65,000,000

    “recent life”

    3.25

    Cretaceous Period, Mesozoic Era end

    65,000,000

    3.25

    Dinosaurs became extinct

    65,000,000

    4.00

    Rocky Mountains form

    80,000,000

    7.00

    Cretaceous Period begins (Jurassic ends)

    140,000,000

    7.50

    Early flowering plants

    150,000,000

    9.00

    Early birds and mammals

    180,000,000

    10.40

    Jurassic Period begins (end Triassic)

    208,000,000

    11.00

    Opening of Atlantic Ocean

    220,000,000

    12.25

    Triassic Period begins

    245,000,000

    12.25

    Beginning of Mesozoic Era (end Paleozoic)

    245,000,000

    “middle life”

    14.00

    Final assembly of Pangaea

    280,000,000

    14.50

    Beginning of Permian period (end Carboniferous/Pennsylvanian)

    290,000,000

    16.25

    First reptiles

    325,000,000

    16.15

    Beginning of Carboniferous/Pennsylvanian period (end Mississippian)

    323,000,000

    18.15

    Early trees, formation of coal deposits

    363,000,000

    18.15

    Beginning of Carboniferous/Mississippian period (end Devonian)

    363,000,000

    20.45

    Beginning of Devonian period (end Silurian)

    409,000,000

    21.50

    Early land plants

    430,000,000

    21.95

    Beginning of Silurian period (end Ordovician)

    439,000,000

    24.50

    Early fish

    490,000,000

    25.50

    Beginning of Ordovician period (end Cambrian)

    510,000,000

    28.50

    Early shelled organisms

    570,000,000

    28.50

    Beginning of Cambrian period (end of Precambrian time)

    570,000,000

    rise of multicellular animals

    28.50

    Beginning of Paleozoic Era

    570,000,000

    “ancient life”

    28.50

    Beginning of Phanerozoic Eon (end Proterozoic)

    570,000,000

    “visible life” (or 544 million years ago)

    35

    Early multicelled organisms

    700,000,000

    40

    Breakup of early supercontinent

    800,000,000

    70

    Formation of early supercontinent

    1,400,000,000

    60

    First known animals

    1,200,000,000

    125

    Beginning of Proterozoic Eon (end Archeon)

    2,500,000,000

    “earlier life”

    135

    Buildup of free oxygen in atmosphere

    2,700,000,000

    170

    Early bacteria & algae

    3,400,000,000

    190

    Oldest known Earth rocks

    3,800,000,000

    200

    Beginning of Archeon Eon

    4,000,000,000

    230

    Precambrian time begins

    4,600,000,000

    230

    Origin of earth

    4,600,000,000

    Crossing Over Lab

    Click here for Crossing Over Chromosomes

    Background

    Crossing over is a unique event of meiosis. It occurs during Prophase I, which is the first cell division of meiosis. In this stage, homologous pairs of duplicated chromosomes pair up together in groups called tetrads. Sister chromatids wrap up in each other, break off, then fuse back together onto the chromatid of their homologous pair. By doing so, they exchange alleles between chromosomes. This “crossing over” happens very frequently, in every chromosomes, during every meiosis.

    Procedure

    1. Get the 4 chromosomes. Two chromosomes are green (father), and two are red (mother). Each parent provided a homozygous genotype; one parent only provided dominant alleles, the other parent only recessive.
    2. Cut out all 8 chromosomes.
    3. Set the chromosomes up in homologous pairs by taping them side-by-side at their centromeres. Align them in tetrads as they would be in Prophase 1.
    4. By cutting and taping back together your chromosomes, perform a crossover event for each arm of each chromatid in the center of the tetrad. This will mean you will perform four crossovers. Choose the cross over site at random, but do not cut in the middle of a gene.
    5. Complete meiosis and record the genotype of the gametes produced.
    6. What would the genotypes have been without crossing over?
    7. Why is meiosis important for sexual reproduction?
    8. What was the difference between the gametes produced without crossing over and the ones produced with crossing over?
    9. Did your cross-over event produce the same gametes as the other lab groups in the class?
    10. In what way is crossing over important for sexual reproduction?
    11. Was there a greater chance to cross over between some pairs of alleles than between others? Explain.

    CSI: Shaw - Case of the Cookie Mystery

    By James Watson

    CSI: Shaw needs your help! The fundraiser for the Winter athletics teams is a special holiday cookies bake sale. A spy from Heights has snuck into the kitchen and dumped all the dry baking ingredients from their labeled containers onto the counter top.

    CSI: Shaw has collected small samples of four white powders from the labeled containers in the kitchen. The four powders are the ingredients for the cookies, but they are not enough to make the cookies. All of the ingredients were dumped on a counter into six huge piles by the hater from Heights.

    Powder Testing Procedure

    Important: Each person should test only one powder at a time! DO NOT ALLOW SAMPLES TO MIX TOGETHER!

    You will be given SIX mystery samples and four known samples. For each sample, do the following:

    1. Place 3 small samples of your powder (about half the size of a dime) on a piece of wax paper. Place the wax paper on a paper towel to prevent messes.
    2. Describe your powder sample and write your observations in the table below.
    3. Add 4 to 5 drops of vinegar to the second pile and mix using a clean toothpick. Record your observations in the chart (e.g., fizz, no reaction, etc.).
    4. CAUTION: Iodine will stain clothing, hands, and anything it touches! Add 4 to 5 drops of iodine to the third pile, and mix using a clean toothpick. Record your observations in the table (e.g., black, brown, no reaction, etc.).
    5. CAUTION: Use care when working with heat! Long hair must be tied back. Sleeves must be rolled up. Keep papers (and anything flammable) away from the flame. Goggles must be worn, since the powder may melt and splatter! For the heat test, place a small amount of powder on a clean square of aluminum foil. Bend the edges up to create a “cup” and hold onto it using a pair of tongs or tweezers. Place the sample on the hot plate for a few seconds. Record your observations in the table.
    6. Clean up the area before moving on to the next sample and also after you are completely finished!
    Sample Description Vinegar Test Iodine Test Heat Test
    Mystery Sample #1
    Mystery Sample #2
    Mystery Sample #3
    Mystery Sample #4
    Mystery Sample #5
    Mystery Sample #6
    Flour
    Salt
    Soda
    Sugar

    Analysis for each of the six mystery substances:

    1. What evidence do you have the suggests it is one or more of the known powders?
    2. Which powder(s) is this mystery substance?
    3. How certain are you? Could you do another test or a different test to be more certain?

    Cycles of Matter

    1. What role do forests play in the cycle of matter?
      1. Identify at least three countries that have lost forests.
      2. What are the effects of losing forests?
    2. Find some worms.
      1. What role do worms play in the cycle of matter?
      2. Why is worm poop used as fertilizer?
      3. How do worms get water, one of their basic needs?
    3. Using a computer, find an animation of the carbon cycle. Describe how carbon gets from the atmosphere to fossil fuels, in detail. Include at least 5 steps!
    4. Find a plant in the room.
      1. What roles do crops (such as beans) play in the cycle of matter?
      2. Identify at least five crops that are used by humans.
      3. What would be immediately affected by the loss of any one crop?

    Data structures
    1. What is a property in JavaScript?
    2. What is an object?
    3. How do you add a property to an object?
    4. How do you delete a property from an object?
    5. What is an array?
    6. What do “push” and “pop” do?
    • Show and explain your answers to Ex 4.1 through 4.11.

    Decisions, Decisions!

    A Genetics Role-playing Activity by Sharon Nelson

    Introduction

    In this activity, you will use research/study skills to investigate a particular human genetic disorder and assume role(s) of doctor, genetic counselor, parents, sibling(s), affected individual (as the case requires). You will work cooperatively with other students and make informed decision(s) based on consideration of the bioethical issues involved. By the end, you will generate a written report summarizing the information gathered and give an oral presentation to the class, explaining your particular circumstance, the bioethical issues involved, and the decisions that were made by your group. You will defend your decisions and will answer questions posed by your peers.

    Procedure

    Students will be assigned to work in groups of 2-5. Students will then choose a scenario for role playing. Your job is to research any and all information relevant to your situation. Students may divide the roles in any way they see fit (one may choose to assume the role of parent, another the role of doctor, etc.) Once you have the necessary information, you must make some decisions regarding your situation, based on the bioethical issues involved. In addition to a 5-10 minute oral presentation, students must, with your group members, turn in one written report.

    1. Research the genetic disease.
      1. What are the symptoms?
      2. What is the cause (or causes) of the disease?
      3. What are the treatments of the disease?
      4. What is the cure, if any, for the disease?
      5. List all resources used.
    2. Research the treatment.
      1. How much does the treatment cost?
      2. How long does the treatment take?
      3. Show, with calculations, if your patient would be able to afford the treatment.
      4. List all resources used.
    3. Prepare the genetic counselor’s report by putting yourself in the position of a professional who is counseling these parents.
      1. Why did this disease happen?
      2. What are the chances that this disease will happen again?
      3. What can be done now?
      4. List all resources used.
    4. Prepare the parent’s report by putting yourself in the position of the parent with these problems.
      1. What are the financial effects of the disease?
      2. What are the emotional effects of the disease?
      3. What are the social effects of the disease?
      4. List all resources used.
    5. Research resources available in the community.
      1. What resources are available in Northeast Ohio for education about this disease?
      2. What resources are available in Northeast Ohio for medical progress in treatment and cures for this disease?
      3. List all resources used.
    6. Conclusions.
      1. In this scenario, what decision would you make as the genetic counselor? Explain!
      2. What decision would you make as the parent? Explain!
      3. Summarize the scenario.
    7. Prepare your oral presentation.
      1. Who is going to say what?
      2. Prepare two to three pictures for display during your presentation.
      3. Practice and ensure that the presentation will last between five and ten minutes.
    8. Write your report using the rubric at the end.

    Role Play Scenarios

    • Your 16-yr-old daughter is 6′ tall. After some discussion about her health and some probing by the family physician into your family’s history, you are referred to a genetic counselor. The physician suspects the possibility of Marfan’s Syndrome. Your daughter is currently on the varsity basketball team, and the season has just gotten underway.Your income: $55,000 Insurance: HMO, 80% coverage.
    • You and your wife have just lost a child to Tay-Sachs disease. You were referred to a genetic counselor before deciding to have more children.Your income: $75,000 Insurance: none
    • You and your husband are in your early forties and have decided you would like to have another child. Your physician refers you to a genetic counselor to discuss concerns regarding Down’s Syndrome.Your income: $150,000 Insurance: 80% coverage
    • You and your partner are both African American. You have two children: the second child, a girl, is an albino; the first child, also a girl, is visually impaired. You would like another child and seek the advice of a genetic counselor.Your income: $90,000 Insurance: full coverage.
    • You have one child, age 3, that has cystic fibrosis. You are three months pregnant with your second child; you and your husband separated a month ago. You have been referred to a genetic counselor.Your income: $35,000 Insurance: coverage through spouse’s employer.
    • You have just married. You and your spouse are healthy but your husband’s brother has two children with sickle cell anemia and your sister has the same disease. You are thinking of having children and have sought the advice of a genetic counselor.Your income: $51,000 Insurance: none
    • Your oldest child has PKU that was diagnosed at birth. You are unexpectedly pregnant with a second child and have been referred to a genetic counselor.Your income: $72,000 Insurance: through your employer jointly; your husband has just been laid off from his job.
    • You have hemophilia; you and your spouse would like to have children. You are referred to a genetic counselor.Income: You just lost your job due to missing so many days of work for hospital stays. Wife’s income as teacher’s aide: $18,000.Insurance: none
    • You and your wife both have achondroplasia. You have just built a house to suit your needs. You would like to have a family and have been referred to a genetic counselor.Income: $150,000. Insurance: HMO, 90% coverage
    • Gloria, 19, is married to Robert, 21, and they wish to start a family. Both of Gloria’s parents are healthy (Sonia, 39, and Todd, 40). However, Gloria’s grandfather died at the age of 43 after being diagnosed with Huntington’s Disease. Gloria and Robert have many questions and seek out a genetic counselor for information.Income: $52,000. Insurance: both, through employers
    • Jim,32, and Tammy, 28, have had two healthy children: Twila, age 3 and Terry, age 5. They have, however, recently discovered some background news about Tammy’s family that concerns them. They have just found out that a brother of Tammy’s, who was confined to a wheelchair by age 10, has Muscular Dystrophy. They would love to have a family of four children. Genetic counseling is available.Income: $80,000 Insurance: 50% coverage
    • As a result of information learned in his high school biology class, Jim thinks he may have Klinefelter’s Syndrome. His parents have never heard of this disorder and they seek out a genetic counselor.Family income: $92,000 Insurance: full major medical coverage.
    • You and your wife have two children. The first is healthy. The second has spina bifida, and is paralyzed from the waist down. You desire more children and seek the advice of a genetic counselor.Income: $200,000 Insurance: full coverage
    • Cindy, 38, is expecting her third child. She has two healthy children. Due to her age, her doctor suggests that amniocentesis be done at sixteen weeks post-conception. The karyotype reveals that the child has Turner’s Syndrome. Cindy and her husband Stan are referred to a genetic counselor with this information in hand.Income: $75,000 Insurance: self-insured

    Oral Presentation:

    Criterion

    Excellent

    Good

    Fair

    Poor

    Heard and understood by all

    3

    Everyone could hear and understand!

    2

    Some things were hard to understand

    1

    What was that again?

    0

    I have no idea

    Creative approach

    3

    Truly unique

    2

    Not unique, but well put together

    1

    Haven’t I seen this before?

    0

    Did you plan at all?

    Accuracy

    3

    No errors

    2

    A couple minor errors

    1

    Are you sure you did the research?

    0

    What research?

    Participation of all members

    3

    Great!  You all were ready!

    2

    You were mostly ready

    1

    Don’t wait until the last second

    0

    Did you know you had to present?

    Content covered thoroughly

    3

    Everything was there and now I know about the topic

    2

    Missing a concept or two but I’m now better informed

    1

    I’m not sure that I learned what I needed to

    0

    What content?

    Comments/Notes:

     

    Total:  ___ / 15

    Written report:

    1. Mechanics
      1. Grammar – 1 point
      2. Spelling – 1 point
      3. Neatness – 1 point
      4. Format: Verdana, Arial, or Times New Roman; 12 pt; Double-spaced; 1” margins – 1 point
      5. Length: One to two pages – 1 point
      6. Header: Student name(s); Title – 1 point
      7. Footer: Date; Page number; School name – 1 point
    2. Material
      1. Doctor’s report

    i.      Symptoms – 1 point

    ii.      Cause – 1 point

    iii.      Treatment – 1 point

    iv.      Cure – 1 point

    1. Genetic counselor’s report

    i.      Why did this happen? – 2 points

    ii.      Will it happen again? – 1 point

    iii.      What can be done? – 1 point

    1. Parents’ report

    i.      Financial effects – 2 points

    ii.      Emotional effects – 1 point

    iii.      Social effects – 1 point

    1. Community resources available

    i.      For educational needs – 1 point

    ii.      For medical progress – 1 point

    1. Conclusions – 2 points
    2. Resources utilized
      1. Quality of resources – 1 point
      2. Quantity of resources – 1 point
    3. Extra credit: Interviews with doctors, nurses, etc. Include:
      1. Name
      2. Time
      3. Date of interview
      4. Content of interview

    Defend Your Organelle

    By Amy Stuhm

    1. From the teacher, you will draw a random organelle from the following list: Cell Membrane, Mitochondria, Lysosome, Cytoplasm, Ribosome, Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nucleus, Vacuole.
    2. Use your textbook, the internet, and any other materials to research your organelle and and answer the following questions:
      1. State the function/s.
      2. Describe what it looks like.
      3. What would happen if it did not exist?
      4. Describe what diseases/conditions occur in the body if it malfunctions.
    3. Defend why the cell needs this organelle (you). Prepare a presentation that will convince the rest of the class that they should keep you!

     

    Designing Greenhouse Effect Experiments
    1. Get the following materials per group: 2 water bottles, 1 plastic bag, 1 piece of string, 1 length of masking tape, 2 thermometers, 1 piece of cardboard, 2 rocks, 1 pair of scissors
    2. Cut one bottle half-way from the bottom.  Cut the other where it narrows for the neck.
    3. Using masking tape, attach the thermometers to the inside of the bottles.
    4. Tape small cardboard pieces over the thermometers’ bulbs so that it is not exposed directly to the rays of the sun (or light bulb, if done inside).  The bottom of the thermometer should be 1 inch from the bottom of the bottle.  Remove the label of the bottle so it doesn’t interfere with the incoming energy.
    5. A dry, clean rock should be place in the bottom of each bottle to prevent it from tipping over.
    6. The taller bottle should be covered with clear plastic held in place with a rubber band. This is the “greenhouse.” The short bottle should remain uncovered. This is the control. Since we are testing the effect of both the sides and cover, both need to be absent in the control.
    7. Depending on your group, you will do one of the following: Put about 2” of water in the base of both; Place moist soil in both; Place dry soil in both; Make no changes to both.
    8. Record the starting air temperature in each bottle.
    9. Place your thermometer in open sunlight, with the thermometers facing away from the sun.
    10. Record the temperature inside each bottle every 2 minutes for 20 – 30 minutes.
    11. Graph temperature versus time.
    12. How is this experiment like and unlike the real atmosphere?
    13. How is this experiment like and unlike global warming?
    14. What was the purpose of the short bottle?
    15. From greatest to least effect, list the different substances used in the bottles.
    16. Where do you predict that the biggest effect of global warming will be on Earth?
    17. Where do you predict that the smallest effect of global warming will be on Earth?

      Developing Posture

      Posture is among the greatest variables that has influence human height growth and spinal column well-being. If you want to achieve your full height potential, it is necessary that you choose to keep good healthy posture through all your actions.  Ensuring you maintain a careful focus to stand up straight is, naturally a sensible way to possess excellent posture. Nonetheless, performing frequent posture improvement in addition to height growth activities may help the body have much better posture naturally.  To help you to better have an understanding of the reason why good posture plays such a major factor of your height, you should understand a little bit about the structure of the vertebrae.

      Your spinal column is naturally “S” shaped and when you’re standing upright, a correctly aligned spine will appear as if a string is strung directly through your body from your crown of your scalp, down the center of your torso, and into your heels.  This makes your physique situate itself as upright as it can be. When you maintain bad posture, a segment of the vertebrae will be misaligned much more in one way or the other.  As an example, those who shift their pelvis overly forwards may develop a “swayback” that slumps their body. When your physique slumps in this manner it puts pressure on your vertebrae as well as wears down the discs in your spine, reducing your height.  In fact, many people with inadequate form are 1 to two inches less tall in comparison to their real stature.

      It is best to try to maintain optimal posture while in every bodily alignment. But if your spinal column, neck, as well as other related muscle groups are not in shape then you will discover that you have to make more of a concentrated effort to do so.  Even so, if you strengthen these applicable muscles you’ll have an all natural capability to avoid the tendency to slump and struggle with unhealthy compression placed on your spinal column that makes you get shorter.

      1. What is posture?
      2. Which bones in the body are the most important in order to maintain posture?
      3. How can you improve your posture?
      4. In the following paragraphs, you’ll find out about three exercises developed to help you develop your posture.  They can also help you increase your height!  The first exercise is called Bowing Down to One self. It is one of most basic height development workouts and you can do it pretty much wherever. This particular stretch increases your healthy posture, plus extends out the muscle groups in your upper back.  Take a seat into a seat and keep your spine in a straight line and your head facing forwards. Hold your feet soles flat to the ground. Slowly lower your chin down to your upper body and breathe three long breaths prior to raising your head back to the starting location. Continue doing this exercise as required.
      5. Which specific bones does this exercise help to stretch?
      6. Where do you feel the stretch in your body?
      7. The first exercise needs to be followed with the Ear to Shoulder. Just like the last activity, this will aid in improving your posture along with stretch out your top spine muscles.  This action particularly exercises the muscular tissues which run down the sides of the top spinal column and neck which will help hold your neck and head in place of good healthy posture and boost height increase .  Sit down in the same placement as before, with your spinal column straight and feet flat to the ground. Take in a deep breath so when you let out your breath move your right ear towards your right shoulder.  Take another deep breath so that as you exhale roll your chin towards your upper body. On the next breath, breathe out and move your left ear to your left shoulder. Finally, take an additional heavy breath and let out your breath while you move your chin returning to your upper body.  Your moves ought to be continual and slow-moving and you ought to breathe deeply. Repeat this set a minimum of 3 more intervals.
      8. Which specific muscles does this exercise help to stretch?
      9. Where do you feel the stretch in your body?
      10. As you conduct the following exercise, named the Poultry Exercise, you’ll be able to sense the stretching out and lengthening across the backside of the neck. Because your neck is such an important factor in good healthy posture, this particular exercise can be great to increase height development, and general conditioning.  Once again, you need to keep the vertebrae straight and feet flat whilst you sit in a chair. Behave as if there were a string yanking up the top of your head to make you as tall as possible.  Focus your eyes to the location in front of your nose as well as raise your palm to your chin. Take in a very deep breath in, rest your palm on your chin and start to inhale and exhale out slowly.  As you breathe out, gently push your chin into your neck until eventually you feel the elongating on the back of your neck. Whenever you finish breathing out cease and then repeat the set, you should do this no less than 3 more times.
      11. Which specific bones muscles does this exercise help to stretch?
      12. Where do you feel the stretch in your body?

      Read the following article:

      Learn to Lift Correctly to Help Prevent Back Injury

      Most people lift things of varying size and weight throughout the day without concern for back injury. It is usually after a back attack or spine injury that a patient becomes aware of the importance of proper posture and body mechanics when lifting.

      At the San Diego Center for Spinal Disorders (SDCSD), we’d like to help you prevent back injury from occurring when lifting. Whether you’ve always had a healthy back, or you’ve had spine injuries in the past, the four easy lessons below will help you prevent lifting injuries.

      Lesson 1: Good Posture and Body Mechanics

      Posture and body mechanics involves the way your body moves through space. Good posture means the natural curves of the spine are not stressed or strained, but in a neutral position ready to absorb and distribute loads (e.g. weight) encountered during daily activities. Proper body mechanics incorporates good posture while the body is at rest or in motion. When good posture and body mechanics are working in harmony, spine injury may be prevented.

      Lesson 2: Don’t Lift Yet – Evaluate the Situation

      Before you begin to lift something, assess the item’s size and weight. Test the weight by pushing it with your foot or by lifting a corner. If the item doesn’t easily move, get help. The job may require two people, splitting up the load, a hand-truck, dolly or lifting equipment.

      Plan a safe route to the final destination. Map out a mental picture to the destination and plan for places to stop and rest. Before beginning to lift and move the item, clear away floor clutter (e.g. throw rugs, electrical cords), open closed doors, and be aware of stairs.

      Lesson 3: Safe Lifting Tips

      The following tips apply in most lifting situations.

      • Position your body directly in front of and close to the item.
      • Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart to give the body a solid foundation.
      • Tighten your stomach muscles to help support the back.
      • Bend both at the hips and knees (power position) and squat close to the item.
      • Take hold of the item and bring it close to your body.
      • The way the item is held depends on its size and shape.

      For example: A small box can be held close to the body by gripping the box at the bottom with the elbows bent. Bending the arms will help to distribute the weight and lessen stress to the neck and shoulders. Work gloves may help to improve grip and protect the hands.

      Before lifting, remember:

      • Keep your stomach muscles tight
      • Look straight ahead
      • Do not twist or turn your body while lifting
      • Lift using the leg muscles, keeping the spine straight or tall
      • Take your time, smoothly lift the item; avoid jerking movements
      • Do not lift (or carry) items above the waist.
      • When carrying the item, keep your knees slightly bent, take small steps, and use your feet to change direction (e.g. pivot).

      To set the item down:

      • Keep the load close to the body
      • Look straight ahead
      • Do not twist the body
      • Bend both at the hips and knees (squat down), keeping the spine straight or tall
      • Release the item
      • Stand up straight using the leg muscles

      Lesson 4: Don’t Stoop

      Consider the guidelines in Lesson 3 even if picking a piece of paper up off the floor. One of the worst body movements is stooping or bending over at the waist to lift anything. Stooping over places harmful stress on the lower back and can cause back injury.

      The next time you are faced with a simple lifting task or challenge, remember to be aware of how your body moves through space. Make sure you include proper posture and good body mechanics in your lifting plan to help prevent back injury.

      1. Try picking something up with these tips.  Watch others lift heavy objects.  See who in your group can pick up heavy objects the best, according to the tips.  What are they doing wrong?
      2. What is the most difficult part of lifting things properly?

      Dichotomous Keys: Beans
      1. Get a set of beans and a dichotomous key. For each bean:
      2. Write down each decision that you make (e.g., “It is not round”, “It is all white”)
      3. Write down the name of the bean
      4. Identify which beans were not in your set, but were in the dichotomous key. What would you expect each bean to look like, according to the information in the dichotomous key?

      Dichotomous Keys: Trees
      1. For each of four different trees:
      2. Follow the dichotomous key below for each decision you make.
      3. Write down each decision and the name of the tree, for example:
        Tree #1: 1b, 2b, 6a = Locust
      1a. Tree has green leaves (evergreen) Go to 9

      Seed Pods

      Scale-like, Needle-like, Awl-like

      1b. Tree has no leaves Go to 2
      2a. The branching is opposite Go to 3
      2b. The branching is alternate Go to 6
      3a. Buds are red
      3b. Buds are dry and scratchy Go to 5
      4a. Bark has diamond patterns Norway Maple
      4b. Bark is smooth to flaky Red Maple
      5a. Bark has diamond patterns White Ash
      5b. Bumpy bark with sharp buds Sugar Maple
      6a. Twig has seed pods Go to 7
      6b. Twig has no seed pods Go to 8
      7a. Twig has flat seed pods Locust (Black or Honey)
      7b. Twig has round, prickly seed pods Sweetgum
      8a. Twig has tiny, cone-like berries Alder or Birch
      8b. Twig has fuzzy berries Sumac
      9a. Leaves are Awl-like or Scale-like Go to 10
      9b. Leaves are Needle-like Go to 11
      10a. Leaves are very sharp Juniper
      10b. Leaves are not very sharp Falsecypress
      11a. Needles are flat with white stripes Go to 12
      11b. Needles are bundled Pine
      12a. Needles are more square than flat Spruce
      12b. Needles are more flat than square Hemlock

      Dihybrid Cross With Corn

      Introduction

      A dihybrid cross is a cross between individuals that involves two pairs of contrasting traits. Predicting the results of a dihybrid cross is more complicated than predicting the results of a monohybrid cross. All possible combinations of the four alleles from each parent must be considered. We will examine a dihybrid cross involving both color and texture. Purple (P), is dominant to yellow (p), and smooth texture (S) is dominant to wrinkled (s). Both parent plants are heterozygous for both traits.


      Materials

      Appropriate ear of corn.

      Procedures

      First let us use a Punnett square to examine the theoretical outcome of the Heterozygous X Heterozygous dihybrid cross.

      1. Fill in the Punnett square. Each box represents a genotype possibility for an offspring. Place the alleles donated by each parent in the corresponding box. One offspring has been done for you as an example. Now list the possible phenotypes in the spaces below the Punnett square. REMEMBER: a phenotype is how the offspring will look. If an individual’s genotype is heterozygous, the dominant trait will be expressed in the phenotype. There are four possible phenotypes for the offspring of this cross, and both traits are in each phenotype. One has been done for you as an example.
      2. Now show the ratio of the phenotypes. For this, it is simply the number of possible individuals with each phenotype.
      3. Actual cross: Now we will make a count of an actual cross and compare the calculations of it’s phenotype ratios to the theoretical.
      4. Obtain an ear of corn that is the result of a cross that was Heterozygous X Heterozygous for both traits. Copy the four phenotypes in the appropriate blanks, then count and record the number of kernels for each phenotype.
      5. Now calculate the ratio for the cross. The phenotype with the least number of individuals you will call 1. Place the 1 in the space below the appropriate phenotype. Now divide the other count numbers by the number of individuals from the phenotype you called 1, and round your answers to the nearest whole number. Put the answers under the appropriate phenotypes.
      6. Compare your results with the theoretical answers you obtained for the cross. Did you obtain a ratio in your experiment that was close to the theoretical?
      Phenotype: _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________
      Number: _______ _______ _______ _______
      Ratio: ______ : ______ : ______ : ______

      Discovering Enzymes

      Discovering Enzymes

      By Pascale Chenevier and Gil Toombes

      Overview

      Students use hydrogen peroxide to view reactions between enzymes and proteins and thank about the results.

      Materials

      • Hydrogen peroxide
      • Acetone
      • Pipettes
      • Test tubes
      • Gloves
      • Safety goggles
      • Potatoes
      • Eggs (egg whites)
      • Carrots
      • Dirt
      • Leaves
      • Wood
      • Rocks

      Introduction

      Fresh potato shows an interesting chemical activity. When dipped in a solution of hydrogen peroxide, it triggers bubbling of oxygen. This activity is due to a special protein produced by the potato to protect itself against oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is very common on our planet because of our oxygen rich atmosphere. Iron is oxidized into rust by oxygen from the air, a process accelerated by water and salt. The skin is sensitive to oxidative agents called “free radicals” for which cosmetic manufacturers design special “anti-age” creams (often containing vitamin C as the anti-oxidizer). UV light shining on oxygen turns it into an even stronger oxidant, ozone (O3), which is in the ozone layer or in copiers, and that ozone is dangerous (everybody can recognize the smell of ozone because of copiers). The enzyme in potato is called catalase. An enzyme makes a reaction happen faster. If you let hydrogen peroxide sit in a container for long enough (months at room temperature) bubbles of oxygen would be released. The catalase in potato juice breaks the hydrogen peroxide down much, much faster.

      Put a small amount (about 1-inch high) of hydrogen peroxide into a test tube. Cut a small sliver of fresh potato and drop it into the hydrogen peroxide. Bubbles will start to form around the potato sliver. What’s going on? There are lots of questions you could ask about this reaction but this activity addresses two chief questions.

      What things make bubbles when immersed in hydrogen peroxide?

      As a group, design experiments to test which things (milk, carrots, earth, leaves, wood, hair, spit, rocks, etc.) make bubbles in hydrogen peroxide. Think about how to make the comparison as accurate as possible. Predict (or guess) what you think will
      happen? Write down a description of your experiments, predict (or guess) the results you expect, carry out the experiments and summarize the results.

      Can we speed up, slow down or stop the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and potato juice?

      We will blend and separate potato juice. Mixing potato juice and hydrogen peroxide makes foam filled with bubbles. As a group, design a protocol to test the effect of different chemicals and conditions on the reaction. Don’t forget to do a proper “control” experiment.

      Summarize the results of all the tests to show the effect of chemicals and conditions on the reaction.

      To conclude, we’ll do one last test of the stability/fragility of proteins. Shake potato juice with acetone (best known as nail polish remover) and test for activity: no activity. The potato juice doesn’t change appearance when we add acetone because the concentration of the active protein, catalase, is very small. Try the same thing on egg white that contains a far greater concentration of proteins (in particular albumin). This time the egg white turns into a white hard solid just like cooked egg white. Acetone has completely changed the structure of the proteins in egg white. Bad conditions destroy the complex structure of proteins. When the proteins in egg white lose their structure, they turn white and gel together. When the catalase in potato juice loses its structure, it can no longer break down hydrogen peroxide.

      Dissolving Salt

      “What is the highest percentage of salt that can be dissolved completely in water?”

      You will answer the above question by designing an experiment to determine the percentage of salt in the water that the water can hold.  You will know that you have reached this point when salt begins to accumulate on the bottom of the container that you are using.

      Before you begin, determine the following pieces of information:

      • Water: Determine the amount of water, in mL that you will be using throughout the experiment. Note that you will be given a beaker or flask that can hold about 300 mL of water. Using less water means that you will not have to use as much salt (so the experiment will be faster), but using more water means that you could get more precise results. 
      • Salt: You should measure the salt with a graduated cylinder, since you are measuring the volume of salt. You should choose an amount to add in every time you add salt. The higher the amount of salt that you add each time, the less time the experiment will take, but it will be less precise.
      • Measurements: After every time you add salt to the mixture, make sure to mix the salt and water well. You need to keep adding salt to the water until it’s completely saturated (the salt collects at the bottom). Do not get rid of your mixture until you’ve reached this point.
      • Trials: A trial in this experiment is over when you have added as much salt as you can to the water and it still dissolves. A trial is not every time you add another dose of salt to the water. Make sure to repeat the experiment at least twice (two trials) so you can confirm your results. The second time that you do the experiment, you should have a better idea of where to start.
      • Data: Keep track of your data in a table. This table should have one column for each trial and one row for each dose of salt. Keep a running total of how much salt you have added to the water.
      1. What is your hypothesis or hypotheses?
      2. What is the independent variable?
      3. What is the dependent variable?
      4. Do the experiment.
      5. How many times did you repeat the experiment?
      6. Represent the data in appropriate tables, charts and graphs. Calculate the percentage of salt using the following formula: (mL of salt / mL of water) x 100 = percentage
      7. Why did you get the results that you did?  Explain in terms of concepts that you needed to know in order to do this lab.
      8. Was your hypothesis supported?  Why or why not?
      9. How could your hypothesis be modified to find out even more information?

      DNA From Cheek Cells

      Materials:

      • Clear Gatorade OR 0.9% salt water (approx. ½ teaspoon in 8 oz. water)
      • Small cups (4-8 oz)
      • 30-50 ml test tube or other small container (such as a clear film canister)
      • 25% soap solution (1 teaspoon dish soap or shampoo + 3 teaspoons of water)
      • Ice cold rubbing alcohol stored in freezer or on ice until use
      • Teaspoons for measuring

      Procedure:

      1. Swish 2 teaspoons (10ml) of the Gatorade or salt water from the small cup in your mouth vigorously for 30 seconds. Your goal is to slough off as many cheek cells as possible. Your teacher will time you to make sure you have swished long enough.
      2. Spit the water with cheek cells back into the small cup.
      3. Pour this solution into a tube containing 1 teaspoon (5ml) of soap solution.
      4. Gently mix this solution for 2-3 minutes. Try to avoid creating too many bubbles.
      5. The soap solution breaks the cell membranes that are made up of fats, just like the soap breaks down the grease on your dishes.
      6. Tilt the tube of soap solution/cells. Pour 2-3 teaspoons (10-15ml) of ice cold alcohol (ETOH) down the side of the tube so that it forms a layer on top of your soapy solution. DO NOT MIX THIS.
      7. Let the tube stand for 1-2 minutes.
      8. Record your findings.

      DNA From Kiwi Fruit

      Materials:

      • One small Ziploc® bag
      • Jar or beaker that fits strainer or funnel
      • Funnel
      • A #6 coffee filter
      • Ice-water bath
      • Water
      • 25% soap solution (1 teaspoon dish soap or shampoo + 3 teaspoons of water)
      • Kiwifruit, half a kiwi per group of students
      • Table salt
      • 1 – 20ml test tube per group, preferably with a cap
      • 1 – 10ml test tube per group, preferably with a cap
      • Ice cold rubbing alcohol stored in freezer or on ice until use

      Group Procedure:

      1. Get six pieces of kiwi and put them in a Ziploc® bag.
      2. Add 20ml of shampoo solution to the Ziploc® bag. Make sure the bag is closed with extra air. (The shampoo solution breaks the cell membrane because the membrane is made of fats.)
      3. Mush the kiwi thoroughly but carefully so the bag doesn’t break, for about five minutes.
      4. Cool the kiwi mixture in the ice bath for a minute. Then mush the kiwi more. Cool, then mush. Repeat several times.
      5. Filter the mixture through cheesecloth. All groups can combine their mixtures at this point, to filter together.
      6. Dispense approximately 3 ml of kiwi solution to each test tube, one for each student.
      7. Being careful not to shake the tubes, add approximately 2 ml of cold 95% ethanol to each tube. The cooling protects the DNA from being destroyed. In the nuclear membrane it is protected from the DNases in the cell membrane. DNases are in our cells to protect us from viruses.

      Dragon Genetics

      In this activity you will study the patterns of inheritance of multiple genes in (imaginary) dragons. For this activity, we will only consider one gene on each chromosome. These genes are described in the following table.

      Dominant Alleles Recessive Alleles
      Chromosome 1 W = has wings w = no wings
      Chromosome 2 H = big horns h = small horns

      The mother dragon is heterozygous for the wing gene (Ww) and the horn gene (Hh). The father is homozygous recessive for the wing gene (ww) and the horn gene (hh).

      1. What phenotypic traits will each parent have? Phenotypic traits are the observable bodily characteristics.
      2. Draw the appropriate characteristics for each parent below in your book:

      Father

      Mother

      1. On average, what percentage of the baby dragons will have big horns? _______

      To predict the inheritance of the wing and horn genes, you first need to determine the genotypes of the eggs produced by the heterozygous (WwHh) mother dragon and the sperm produced by the homozygous (wwhh) father dragon. Use the figure below to answer the next questions.

      1. Considering both the wing and horn genes, what different genotypes of eggs could the heterozygous mother dragon produce?
      2. What genotypes or genotype of sperm can the homozygous (wwhh) father dragon produce?

      The next step in predicting the inheritance of the wing and horn genes is to predict the outcome of fertilization between these eggs and sperm. In the following chart, label the gene on each chromosome in each type of zygote that could be produced by a mating between this mother and father. Then, fill in the genotypes of the baby dragons that result from each zygote and sketch in the characteristics of each baby dragon to show the phenotype for each genotype.

      This type of mating involving two different genes is more typically shown as a Punnett square with four rows and four columns (see below). Notice that, because the father is homozygous for both genes, all his sperm have the same genotype, so all four rows are identical.

      Mother (WwHh)
      wh wH Wh WH
      Father (wwhh) wh wwhh wwHh Wwhh WwHh
      wh wwhh wwHh Wwhh WwHh
      wh wwhh wwHh Wwhh WwHh
      wh wwhh wwHh Wwhh WwHh
      1. Considering only the baby dragons with wings, what fraction do you expect to have big horns? (To answer this question, it may be helpful to begin by shading in the two columns of the above Punnett square that include all the baby dragons with wings.)
      2. Considering only the baby dragons without wings, what fraction do you expect to have big horns?
      3. Do you expect that baby dragons with wings and without wings will be equally likely to have big horns?

      Procedure to Test Inheritance of Two Genes on Different Chromosomes

      To test whether baby dragons with wings and baby dragons without wings will be equally likely to have big horns, you will carry out a simulation of the simultaneous inheritance of the genes for wings and horns. Since the father is homozygous (wwhh), you know that all of the father’s sperm will be wh. Therefore, to determine the genetic makeup of each baby dragon produced in your simulation, you will only need to determine the genetic makeup of the egg which is fertilized to become the zygote that develops into the baby dragon. During meiosis, each egg randomly receives one from each pair of homologous chromosomes. Your simulation will mimic this process.

      For this simulation, each of the mother’s pairs of homologous chromosomes will be represented by a popsicle stick with the genes of one chromosome shown on one side and the genes of the other homologous chromosome shown on the other side. Since the mother dragon is heterozygous for both genes (WwHh), you will have one Popsicle stick representing a pair of homologous chromosomes which are heterozygous for the wing gene (Ww) and another Popsicle stick representing a pair of homologous chromosomes which are heterozygous for the horn gene (Hh).

      1. Hold one Popsicle stick in each hand about 6 inches above the desk. Hold each Popsicle stick horizontally with one side facing toward you and the other facing away (with one edge of the Popsicle stick on the bottom and the other edge on the top). The two Popsicle sticks should be lined up end-to-end, simulating the way pairs of homologous chromosomes line up in the center of the cell during the first meiotic division. Simultaneously drop both Popsicle sticks on the desk. The side of each Popsicle stick that is up represents the chromosome that is contained in the egg. This indicates which alleles are passed on to the baby dragon. Put a I in the appropriate box in the chart below to record the genotype of the resulting baby dragon.
        Mother (WwHh)
        wh wH Wh WH
        Fatherwwhh wh Genotype of baby = wwhhNumber of babies with this genotype =____ Genotype of baby = wwHhNumber of babies with this genotype =____ Genotype of baby = WwhhNumber of babies with this genotype =____ Genotype of baby = WwHhNumber of babies with this genotype =____
      2. Repeat step 1 three times to make and record three more baby dragons.

      Summary and Interpretation of Data

      1. Compile the data for the baby dragons produced by all students in the following chart.
        Mother (WwHh)
        wh wH Wh WH
        Fatherwwhh wh Genotype ofbaby =________

        Number of

        babies with this genotype =___

        Phenotype:

        Wings __

        or no wings __

        Horns big __

        or small __

        Genotype ofbaby =________

        Number of

        babies with this genotype =___

        Phenotype:

        Wings __

        or no wings __

        Horns big __

        or small __

        Genotype ofbaby =________

        Number of

        babies with this genotype =___

        Phenotype:

        Wings __

        or no wings __

        Horns big __

        or small __

        Genotype ofbaby =________

        Number of

        babies with this genotype =___

        Phenotype:

        Wings __

        or no wings __

        Horns big __

        or small __

      2. Do any of the baby dragons with wings have small horns?
      3. Does either parent have the combination of wings and small horns?
      4. Considering only the baby dragons with wings, what fraction has big horns?
      5. Considering only the baby dragons without wings, what fraction has big horns?
      6. Are baby dragons with wings and without wings about equally likely to have big horns?
      7. Explain these results, based on what happens during meiosis and fertilization.

      East Cleveland Food Web
      1. In this activity, you will be making a food web from organisms that you are familiar with in the temperate deciduous forest of East Cleveland! You will need to include:
        1. At least 8 total organisms
        2. At least 2 producers
        3. At least 2 secondary consumers
        4. At least 12 total arrows
      2. Make two food chains from your food web!

      Ecological Footprint

       

      Worksheet for helping you calculate what you emit
      Consumption / activity Your use (and units) CO2 factor (lb CO2) Annual emissions
      Residential Utilities
      Electricity KWh 1.5 lb/kWh
      Oil gallons 22 lb/gal
      Natural gas therms 11 lb/therm
      Propane / bottled gas gallons 20 lb/gal
      Transportation
      Cars gallons 22 lb/gal
      Other motor fuel gallons 22 lb/gal
      Air travel miles 0.9 lb/mile
      City bus miles 0.7 lb/mile
      Greyhound bus miles 0.2 lb/mile
      Trains miles 0.6 lb/mile
      Taxi / limousine miles 1.5 lb/mile
      Household Waste
      Trash Pounds 3 lb/lb
      Recycled items pounds 2 lb/lb
      Halocarbon Products
      Refrigerators / freezers (number) 830 lb each
      Car air conditioners (number) 4800 lb each
      Total Annual Greenhouse Gas Emission (pounds CO2)

       

      1. Average U.S. emissions of CO2 per person is 19.1 tons. How does yours compare?
      2. Why do you think yours is bigger or smaller than others?
      3. What are the biggest things you could do to reduce your carbon impact?

       

      Edible Cell

      You will make a model of a cell. This cell should be able to be mostly eaten, meaning that you can have some inedible parts. If it can’t be eaten at all, then other students will be disappointed in you and you may not be able to have a part of their cell on the day of the cell party. Ideas include: Jello molds, cakes, different types of candies, etc. If you know what you want to make but do not have the resources, let your teacher know as soon as possible.

      1. You will make a bacterial, animal or plant cell. You must include a legend which describes the different parts and functions of your cell, along with how they are represented in your cell (see example below).
      2. You must include at least six organelles in your cell. Organelles include (but are not limited to): Cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria, chloroplasts, flagella, cilia, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, ribosomes, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, nucleolus, vacuoles, DNA, and cytoplasm.

      Sample legend (don’t copy – it won’t be right!):

      Item Organelle Function
      Jolly Rancher Mitochondria Makes power
      Sprinkles DNA Holds genetic information
      Toothpick Flagella Helps the cell move
      Peppermint Ribosome Makes proteins
      Frosting Cell wall Provides structure to the cell
      Jello Cytoplasm Fills the cell

      Effect of Fertilizers on Plant Growth

      Procedures

      1. Design an experiment in which only one factor is varied: fertilizer, dosage or plant.
      2. Decide on a measurement: number of plants that die, the number of the top ten (or bottom ten) leaves that yellow.
      3. Administer the fertilizer, wait one week and make the appropriate measurements. Analyze the data.

      Effects of Solar Intensity and Heat on Seeds

      Description

      Using beans, hot plates and either natural or artificial light, design a lab to determine the effect of solar intensity and of heat (separately) on the growth of bean plants. Some notes:

      • The surface of the hot plates will scald the beans. You need to use some other material to buffer the heat when heating up the beans.
      • There are two variables in this experiment. You will need to have four groups: One group where you control both variables, one group where you control the solar intensity and change the heat, one group where you control the heat and change the solar intensity, and one group where you change both.
      • Each group should have at least three beans, and ideally as many as possible.
      • Since you have two variables, you will need two null hypotheses.

      El Nino Webquest

      In order to complete this Webquest, you will need to find several different websites that have information about the El Nino effect.  Each question needs a different source; you should write all of your answers in this Word document and e-mail me your saved document once you are finished.  Just like voting, save early and save often!

      Note: When you are doing Google searches, it helps if you can rephrase or reword what it is that you are looking for.  Google doesn’t care about small words like “is,” “do,” “on,” etc.  What you are looking for is several different sites that discuss the topic, and then you can choose information from several sites at the same time.  Keep each site open in a different tab so that you can easily flip between all of the sites that you find.

      Electricity

      What is Electricity?

      Electricity is a naturally occurring force that exists all around us.  Humans have been aware of this force for many centuries. Ancient man believed that electricity was some form of magic because they did not understand it. Greek philosophers noticed that when a piece of amber was rubbed with cloth, it would attract pieces of straw. They recorded the first references to electrical effects, such as static electricity and lightning, over 2,500 years ago.

      It was not until 1600 that a man named Dr. William Gilbert coined the term “electrica,” a Latin word which describes the static charge that develops when certain materials are rubbed against amber. This is probably the source of the word “electricity.” Electricity and magnetism are natural forces that are very closely related to one another. You will learn a little about magnetism in this section, but there is a whole section on magnetism if you want to learn more.

      In order to really understand electricity, we need to look closely at the very small components that compose all matter.

      Electrons

      Electrons are the smallest and lightest of the particles in an atom. Electrons are in constant motion as they circle around the nucleus of that atom. Electrons are said to have a negative charge, which means that they seem to be surrounded by a kind of invisible force field. This is called an electrostatic field.

      Protons

      Protons are much larger and heavier than electrons. Protons have a positive electrical charge. This positively charged electrostatic field is exactly the same strength as the electrostatic field in an electron, but it is opposite in polarity. Notice the negative electron (pictured at the top left) and the positive proton (pictured at the right) have the same number of force field lines in each of the diagrams. In other words, the proton is exactly as positive as the electron is negative.

      Like charges repel, unlike charges attract

      Two electrons will tend to repel each other because both have a negative electrical charge. Two protons will also tend to repel each other because they both have a positive charge. On the other hand, electrons and protons will be attracted to each other because of their unlike charges.

      Since the electron is much smaller and lighter than a proton, when they are attracted to each other due to their unlike charges, the electron usually does most of the moving. This is because the protons have more mass and are harder to get moving. Although electrons are very small, their negative electrical charges are still quite strong. Remember, the negative charge of an electron is the same as the positive electrical charge of the much larger in size proton. This way the atom stays electrically balanced.

      Another important fact about the electrical charges of protons and electrons is that the farther away they are from each other, the less force their electric fields have on each other. Similarly, the closer they are to each other, the more force they will experience from each other due to this invisible force field called an electric field.

      Maintaining electrical balance

      Each basic element has a certain number of electrons and protons, which distinguishes each element from all other basic elements. In most elements, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons. This maintains an electrical balance in the structure of atoms since protons and electrons have equal, but opposite electrostatic fields.

      Pictured here is an atom of copper, which is much more complex than either an atom of hydrogen or helium.

      The copper atom has 29 protons in its nucleus with 29 electrons orbiting the nucleus. Notice that in the copper atom, the electrons are arranged in several layers called shells. This is to graphically represent that the electrons are at different energy levels within the atom. The energy of an electron is restricted to a few particular energy levels. The energy is said to be quantized, meaning that it cannot vary continuously over a range, but instead is limited to certain values. These energy levels or shells follow a very predictable pattern. The closest shell to the nucleus can have up to 2 electrons. The second shell from the nucleus can have up to 8 electrons. The third shell can have up to 18 electrons. The fourth shell can have up to 32 electrons, and so on. Atoms can have this many electrons, but they do not have to have this many electrons in each shell. The greater distance between the electrons in the outer shells and the protons in the nucleus mean the outer shell electrons experience less of a force of attraction to the nucleus than do the electron in the inner shells.

      What is the valence shell?

      Notice that in the copper atom pictured below that the outside shell has only one electron. This represents that the copper atom has one electron that is near the outer portion of the atom. The outer shell of any atom is called thevalence shell. When the valence electron in any atom gains sufficient energy from some outside force, it can break away from the parent atom and become what is called a free electron.

      Pictured here is an atom of copper, which is much more complex than either an atom of hydrogen or helium.

      Atoms with few electrons in their valence shell tend to have more free electrons since these valence electrons are more loosely bound to the nucleus. In some materials like copper, the electrons are so loosely held by the atom and so close to the neighboring atoms that it is difficult to determine which electron belongs to which atom. Under these conditions, the valence or free electrons tend to drift randomly from one atom to its neighboring atoms. Under normal conditions the movement of the electrons is truly random, meaning they are moving in all directions by the same amount. However, if some outside force acts upon the material, this flow of electrons can be directed through materials and this flow is called electrical current. Materials that have free electrons and allow electrical current to flow easily are called conductors. Many materials do not have any free electrons. Because of this fact, they do not tend to share their electrons very easily and do not make good conductors of electrical currents. These materials are called insulators. There will be more information on this later.

      Electricity is a term used to describe the energy produced (usually to perform work) when electrons are caused to directional (not randomly) flow from atom to atom. In fact, the day-to-day products that we all benefit from, rely on the movement of electrons. This movement of electrons between atoms is called electrical current. We will look at how electrical current is produced and measured in the following pages.

      It is very important to have a way to measure and quantify the flow of electrical current. When current flow is controlled it can be used to do useful work. Electricity can be very dangerous and it is important to know something about it in order to work with it safely. The flow of electrons is measured in units called amperes. The term amps is often used for short. An amp is the amount of electrical current that exists when a number of electrons, having one coulomb (ku`-lum) of charge, move past a given point in one second. A coulomb is the charge carried by 6.25 x 10^18 electrons. 6.25 x 10^18 is scientific notation for 6,250,000,000,000,000,000. That is a lot of electrons moving past a given point in one second!

      Since we cannot count this fast and we cannot even see the electrons, we need an instrument to measure the flow of electrons. An ammeter is this instrument and it is used to indicate how many amps of current are flowing in an electrical circuit.

      We also need to know something about the force that causes the electrons to move in an electrical circuit. This force is called electromotive force, or EMF. Sometimes it is convenient to think of EMF as electrical pressure. In other words, it is the force that makes electrons move in a certain direction within a conductor.

      But how do we create this “electrical pressure” to generate electron flow? There are many sources of EMF. Some of the more common ones are: batteries, generators, and photovoltaic cells, just to name a few.

      Batteries are constructed so there are too many electrons in one material and not enough in another material. The electrons want to balance the electrostatic charge by moving from the material with the excess electrons to the material with the shortage of electrons. However, they cannot because there is no conductive path for them to travel. However, if these two unbalanced materials within the battery are connected together with a conductor, electrical current will flow as the electron moves from the negatively charged area to the positively charged area. When you use a battery, you are allowing electrons to flow from one end of the battery through a conductor and something like a light bulb to the other end of the battery. The battery will work until there is a balance of electrons at both ends of the battery. Caution: you should never connect a conductor to the two ends of a battery without making the electrons pass through something like a light bulb which slows the flow of currents. If the electrons are allowed to flow too fast the conductor will become very hot, and it and the battery may be damaged.

      We will discuss how electrical generators use magnetism to create EMF in a coming section. Photovoltaic cells turn light energy from sources like the sun into energy. To understand the photovoltaic process you need to know about semiconductors so we will not cover them in this material.

      How does the amp and the volt work together in electricity?

      To understand how voltage and amperage are related, it is sometimes useful to make an analogy with water. Look at the picture here of water flowing in a garden hose. Think of electricity flowing in a wire in the same way as the water flowing in the hose. The voltage causing the electrical current to flow in the wire can be considered the water pressure at the faucet, which causes the water to flow. If we were to increase the pressure at the hydrant, more water would flow in the hose. Similarly, if we increase electrical pressure or voltage, more electrons would flow in the wire.

      Does it also make sense that if we were to remove the pressure from the hydrant by turning it off, the water would stop flowing? The same is true with an electrical circuit. If we remove the voltage source, or EMF, no current will flow in the wires.

      Another way of saying this is: without EMF, there will be no current. Also, we could say that the free electrons of the atoms move in random directions unless they are pushed or pulled in one direction by an outside force, which we call electromotive force, or EMF.

      There is another important property that can be measured in electrical systems. This is resistance, which is measured in units called ohms. Resistance is a term that describes the forces that oppose the flow of electron current in a conductor. All materials naturally contain some resistance to the flow of electron current. We have not found a way to make conductors that do not have some resistance.

      If we use our water analogy to help picture resistance, think of a hose that is partially plugged with sand. The sand will slow the flow of water in the hose. We can say that the plugged hose has more resistance to water flow than does an unplugged hose. If we want to get more water out of the hose, we would need to turn up the water pressure at the hydrant. The same is true with electricity. Materials with low resistance let electricity flow easily. Materials with higher resistance require more voltage (EMF) to make the electricity flow.

      The scientific definition of one ohm is the amount of electrical resistance that exists in an electrical circuit when one amp of current is flowing with one volt being applied to the circuit.

      Is resistance good or bad?

      Resistance can be both good and bad. If we are trying to transmit electricity from one place to another through a conductor, resistance is undesirable in the conductor. Resistance causes some of the electrical energy to turn into heat so some electrical energy is lost along the way. However, it is resistance that allows us to use electricity for heat and light. The heat that is generated from electric heaters or the light that we get from light bulbs is due to resistance. In a light bulb, the electricity flowing through the filament, or the tiny wires inside the bulb, cause them to glow white hot. If all the oxygen were not removed from inside the bulb, the wires would burn up.

      An important point to mention here is that the resistance is higher in smaller wires. Therefore, if the voltage or EMF is high, too much current will follow through small wires and make them hot. In some cases hot enough to cause a fire or even explode. Therefore, it is sometimes useful to add components called resistors into an electrical circuit to restrict the flow of electricity and protect the components in the circuit.

      Resistance is also good because it gives us a way to shield ourselves from the harmful energy of electricity.

      1. Define electricity and identify the origins of the term.
      2. Discuss how electricity can be observed in the world.
      3. Explain the differences between electrons and protons.
      4. Predict what happens when protons and electrons interact with other protons or electrons.
      5. Explain how electrons are arranged in an atom.
      6. Describe how elements maintain their electrical balance.
      7. Explain what free electrons are and why they are important.
      8. Explain how an electrical current is produced.
      9. Define amperes and name the instrument that is used to measures amperage.
      10. Construct an experiment to determine the amount of amps flowing in a circuit.
      11. Define EMF and explain how it is measured.
      12. Explain why EMF is important to the flow of electrical current.
      13. List several examples of sources of electromotive force.
      14. Define resistance and how we measure it.
      15. Discuss the similarities between resistance in a wire and the resistance in a water hose.
      16. Use the Build Your Own Battery Kit to build a battery!
      17. Perform the following lab.

      Materials Needed: A typical kit for three students working as a group would consist of 2 batteries, 4 bulbs, 4 sockets, 12 pieces of wire (about 8 inches long and stripped at each end), 2 knife switches, 1 buzzer and 1 motor.

      Strategy: Describe and illustrate the flow of electrical current from the battery, through the wires and through a bulb. Construct a simple circuit using a single bulb:


      This can be followed by the introduction of a switch into the circuit to show how the light can be turned on and off.

      The next step is to make parallel circuits where the electrical surrent from the battery flows with equal voltage into two or more bulbs.

      After you have hooked up this circuit, you can then hook up a series circuit where the electrical current from the battery flows first through one bulb and then through the other.

      You can then loosen various bulbs in their sockets to show that a bulb will remain lit in a parallel circuit even though another bulb may be out. This can be compared to the series circuit where the loosening of one bulb in the circuit will cause any other bulb in the circuit to go out also. A further step would be the hook up of a parallel circuit using different components such as bulbs, buzzers and motors.

      Performance Assessment: You are graded based on two factors: 1. The ability to construct the circuits accurately and have them work properly. 2. The ability to explain the circuits by tracing the flow of current from the battery through the various elements of the circuit.

      Electromagnetic Radiation
      1. What is the lowest frequency electromagnetic wave that has been detected?
      2. How many Hz is typical AM radio?
      3. What is the range of frequencies of typical FM radio?
      4. What color is low-frequency visible light?
      5. What color is high-frequency visible light?
      6. What sort of wavelength does a low frequency produce? A high frequency?
      7. Do different types of light travel at different speeds?
      8. Choose your two favorite FM radio stations and answer:
      Radio Station Name Frequency (MHz) Wavelength (300 / Frequency) Objects in Room
      1. What are their frequencies (f, in MHz)?
      2. The speed of all electromagnetic radiation is about 300 million meters per second (velocity). Calculate the length of the wave, represented by the lambda (): 
      3. Using a meter stick, what objects are also about as long as the wavelengths of your favorite radio stations?

      Elements of the Periodic Table
      1. Define in your own words:
        1. Atomic number
        2. Atomic mass
        3. Atomic weight
        4. Electron configuration
        5. Chemical symbol
        6. Period
        7. Group
      2. Copy and complete the table:
          Location in atom Charge Weight (in amu)
        Proton      
        Neutron      
        Electron      
      3. Copy & complete:
        Name Symbol Mass # of p+ # of n0
        Carbon   12    
          B 11    
          Ca     22
        Neon       18

      Embryology

      Embryology

      When a sperm fertilizes an egg for any animal, the beginning of this new life looks very similar, no matter what the animal. The above diagram (which is not completely accurate) shows the embryology for eight different animals. Animals that are highly related show more similarities in their development from an egg to a mature adult.

      1. What do you notice that is suggested that humans have during their development that, when born, we do not have? Why is this?
      2. What structures do you see that all the eight animals have in common in the:
        1. First stage (I)?
        2. Second stage (II)?
        3. Final stage (III)?
      3. From looking at this embryology chart, describe what type of organism could be the common ancestor of all of these animals.

      Endangered Species
      1. Develop a code of ethics for a recreational activity that can injure or harass wildlife. Investigate the problems that recreational activities cause for threatened and endangered species. For example, determine what problems boat traffic causes for endangered marine or freshwater species such as whales, manatees, giant otters, and corals.
      2. Develop a Boating Code of Ethics that will help prevent or minimize harassment and injury to these species. Other activities to examine include birdwatching, wildlife photography, sport hunting, sport fishing, and SCUBA diving and snorkeling. Can you think of others?
      3. Develop a Code of Ethics for any of the activities, send your proposed Code of Ethics to an organization involved with the activity, and ask for the group’s comments.
      4. Choose an endangered or extinct species and create a series of diagrams showing species relationships in that ecosystem and what happens when one species is removed.
        1. Draw a diagram showing what the animal eats, what other animals compete for the same food, and what animals eat the animal, its young, or its eggs. Other relationships you can portray in your diagram include where the animal nests (in a certain kind of tree, for example), what other animals compete with it for nest sites, and what pollinators (e.g., bees, bats) are needed to pollinate its food plants. Can you think of other relationships that are important?
        2. Remove one of the species in the diagram and analyze what is likely to happen to the entire web of relationships. Draw a new diagram representing the new relationships.
      5. Write a children’s story. Write a story for children about an endangered or extinct species. Go to the children’s section of the and look at picture books to get ideas. Keep audience and purpose in mind as you write: at what age group is your story aimed? what is the main point or feeling you want to convey about this animal? Create a story board as you respond to the following questions:
        1. From what point of view is the story written? (i.e., who is the narrator?)
        2. How will you use setting?
        3. How will you develop the theme, the plot, and the characters?
        4. How will you use external and internal conflict?
        5. How will you show rising action?
        6. What is the story’s climax?
        7. Can you build in symbolism and irony?
        8. How will you illustrate the story?

      Endothermic vs. Exothermic
      1. Define:
        1. Conservation of Energy
        2. Entropy
        3. Endothermic
        4. Exothermic
      2. How are conservation of energy and entropy related?
      3. How are endothermic and exothermic related?
      4. Answer the following for each station in #5:
        1. What is it?
        2. Make two observations about the station
        3. Is it endothermic or exothermic? Why?
        4. According to conservation of energy, no energy is gained or lost. Where is it going?
      5. These are the stations:
        1. hot pack
        2. cold pack
        3. water & ice
        4. lit candle
        5. rubbing alcohol (to put on your skin),
        6. rub your hands together for 30 seconds.

      Enzymatic Browning of Apples

      Apples and other fruit will turn brown when they are cut and the enzyme contained in the fruit (tyrosinase) and other substances (iron-containing phenols) are exposed to oxygen in the air. The purpose of this chemistry laboratory exercise is to observe the effects of acids and bases on the rate of browning of apples when they are cut and the enzymes inside them are exposed to oxygen. A possible hypothesis for this experiment would be:

      Acidity (pH) of a surface treatment does not effect the rate of the enzymatic browning reaction of cut apples.

      Materials

      • Five slices of apple (or pear, banana, potato, or peach)
      • Five plastic cups or other clear containers
      • Vinegar (or dilute acetic acid)
      • Lemon juice
      • Solution of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) and water (you want to dissolve the baking soda. Make the solution by adding water to your baking soda until it dissolves.)
      • Solution of milk of magnesia and water (ratio isn’t particularly important – you could make a mixture of one part water one part milk of magnesia. You just want the milk of magnesia to flow more readily.)
      • Water
      • Graduated cylinder or measuring cups

      Procedure

      1. Label the cups:
        • Vinegar
        • Lemon Juice
        • Baking Soda Solution
        • Milk of Magnesia Solution
        • Water
      2. Add a slice of apple to each cup.
      3. Pour 50 ml or 1/4 cup of a substance over the apple in its labeled cup. You may want to swirl the liquid around the cup to make sure the apple slice is completely coated.
      4. Make note of the appearance of the apple slices immediately following treatment.
      5. Set aside the apple slices for a day.
      6. Observe the apple slices and record your observations. It may be helpful to make a table listing the apple slice treatment in one column and the appearance of the apples in the other column. Record whatever you observe, such as extent of browning (e.g., white, lightly brown, very brown, pink), texture of the apple (dry? slimy?), and any other characteristics (smooth, wrinkled, odor, etc.)
      7. If you can, you may want to take a photograph of your apple slices to support your observations and for future reference.
      8. You may dispose of your apples and cups once you have recorded the data.
      9. What does your data mean? Do all of your apple slices look the same? Are some different from others?
      10. If the slices look the same, this would indicate that the acidity of the treatment had no effect on the enzymatic browning reaction in the apples. On the other hand, if the apple slices look different from each other, this would indicate something in the coatings affected the reaction. First determine whether or not the chemicals in the coatings were capable of affecting the browning reaction. Were they?
      11. Even if the reaction was affected, this does not necessarily mean the acidity of the coatings influenced the reaction. For example, if the lemon juice-treated apple was white and the vinegar-treated apple was brown (both treatments are acids), this would be a clue that something more than acidity affected browning. However, if the acid-treated apples (vinegar, lemon juice) were more/less brown than the neutral apple (water) and/or the base-treated apples (baking soda, milk of magnesia), then your results may indicate acidity affected the browning reaction. What affected the browning reaction?
      12. Was the hypothesis supported or not? If the rate of browning was not the same for the apples and the rate of browning was different for the acid-treated apples compared with the base-treated apples, then this would indicate that the pH (acidity, basicity) of the treatment did affect the rate of the enzymatic browning reaction. In this case, the hypothesis is not supported. If an effect was observed (results), draw a conclusion about the type of chemical (acid? base?) capable of inactivating the enzymatic reaction.
      13. Based on your results, what substances in each apple treatment affected the enzyme activity responsible for the browning of the apples? Which substances did not appear to affect the enzyme activity?
      14. Vinegar and lemon juice contain acids. Baking soda and milk of magnesia are bases. Water is neutral, neither an acid nor a base. From these results, can you conclude whether acids, pH neutral substances, and/or bases were able to reduce the activity of this enzyme (tyrosinase)? Can you think of a reason why some chemicals affected the enzyme while others didn’t?
      15. Enzymes speed the rate of chemical reactions. However, the reaction may still be able to proceed without the enzyme, just more slowly. Design an experiment to determine whether or not the apples in which the enzymes have been inactivated will still turn brown within 24 hours.

      Equilibrium: Natural Selection
      1. Take one disaster card and one climate card. Based on the disaster card, eliminate half of your food web, but keep enough organisms so that there is still at least one on each level.
        1. For each organism eliminated, describe two characteristics of this organism that caused it to die
        2. For each organism that survived, describe two characteristics of the organism that allowed it to survive
      2. Using the climate card, describe for each of the surviving organisms:
        1. Which characteristics are favored for this new climate
        2. What these organisms might look like after ten generations in this new climate

      Ethics
      1. Read about one of the genetic ethical controversies 
      2. Make a Venn Diagram of 3 pros, 3 cons, and in the middle, a brief summary of what the issue is.
      3. Get in a group of three, where each one of you has a different issue.
      4. In turn, every group member should explain their issue to everyone else, without stating their own opinion. Make sure to give pros and cons!
      5. On two pieces of construction paper taped together (on the short side) draw three lines going across. Label each one a different genetic ethical controversy. Label one side of the lines “AGREE” and one side of the lines “DISAGREE”.
      6. For each issue, determine where you stand. Then, sign your name where you feel you stand on each issue.

      Ethics of Climate Change: Cancun 2010

      The Framework Convention on Climate Change is meeting starting on November 29, 2010 in Cancun, Mexico.  Go to http://unfccc.int/ to start this webquest.

      1. Click on “UNFCCC emissions data visualized using Google Maps“.
      2. Select “Transport” from the first drop-down box, carbon dioxide (“CO2″) from the second drop-down box, and then “2008”.  Who is most responsible for carbon dioxide pollution due to transportation in 2008, and how many billion grams (Gg) were polluted?
      3. Use the maps to answer the following questions: Which country had the biggest percentage increase in methane production in agriculture from 1990 to 2008?  Which country had the biggest decrease?
      4. Use the maps to answer the following question: Which country had the biggest percentage increase in total greenhouse gas production (Aggregate GHGs) from waste between 1990 and 2008?  Which country had the biggest decrease?
      5. Click on “Essential Background” and then “Feeling the Heat”.  Use the information in this section to find answers to questions #6 – 10.
      6. What are five major pieces of evidence to support climate change?
      7. What are three future effects of climate change?
      8. In your own view, what is one thing that should be done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions?  Use evidence from the website to support your opinion.
      9. In your own view, what is one thing that should be done to change peoples’ lifestyles?  Use evidence from the website to support your opinion.
      10. In your own view, what is one thing that should be done to cope with the effects of climate change?  Use evidence from the website to support your opinion.
      11. In general, what is ethics?
      12. Is it ethical to continue the way we’re polluting in order to see what will happen on Earth?  Why or why not?
      13. Is it ethical that developed countries (like the U.S.) should expect developing (poor) countries to make as many lifestyle sacrifices?  Why or why not?
      14. Climate change will cause sea levels to rise so much that the 92,500 people of Kiribati (a series of islands in the Pacific Ocean) lose their homes because their islands are flooded.  What would be an ethical decision to make right now?  What would be an ethical decision to make after they lose their homes?

      Eukaryotic Cells
      1. What is the major difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes (do not give book definitions)?
      2. Using the Play-Doh, create, sketch and label a eukaryote, keeping in mind that a eukaryote has all of the organelles as a prokaryote (cell wall, cell membrane, DNA, ribosomes) plus all of the following:
      Organelle Function Shape
      Nucleus Controls cell, contains DNA Large ball in the middle of the cell
      Nucleolus Makes ribosomes Small ball in the nucleus
      Endoplasmic reticulum Site of chemical reactions, attachment of ribosomes Folded paper outside nucleus
      Golgi apparatus Packages proteins Stack of pancakes outside nucleus
      Vacuoles Storage Various shapes outside nucleus
      Ribosomes Protein production Small balls made up of two halves, with one half bigger than the other

      Evolution: What Do You Think?
      1. Ask family and friends for at least three questions that they have about evolution. For each question, write down exactly what question they asked.
      2. In addition to the three questions you got from friends and family, look up the answers to two more questions that you would like to know the answers to.
      3. Using each of the answers you got in #2, explain in your own words what you could tell other people in order to fully answer the question.

      Exponential Population Growth

      From Stevens Institute of Technology

      When looking at the growth of a population of any organism, it can seem to go up at a regular rate.  For example, take the approximate population in Cleveland between 1880 and 1930:

      1880 	  160,146
      1890 	  310,353
      1900 	  460,768
      1910 	  610,663
      1920 	  760,841
      1930 	  910,429

      1. Every ten years, about how many people did Cleveland add?

      2. What would you predict Cleveland’s population to be in 1940?

      This type of growth is called linear growth.  Linear growth can result in large populations of organisms, but in a very predictable way.  On the other hand, populations can seem to go up at a regular rate but it may very quickly change.  For example, a viral infection may get worse in your body until it suddenly causes you to feel very sick, and you may pass out.

      While a linear function can be used to model population growth that has a constant increase or decrease in the number of people, an exponential function can be used to model population growth that has a constant percentage change in population.  In other words, we use exponential functions to model increasingly increasing populations.

      Exponential Function

      f(t) = a * ebt

      f(t) = population after t years
      a = initial value
      e = natural log
      b = base or growth factor
      t = time in years

      3. Using the Exponential Function, find the following values for the final population:

      a) When the initial population is 100, the growth factor is .02 (equal to 2%), and 5 years pass

      b) When the initial population is 10,000, the growth factor is .01 (equal to 1%), and 10 years pass

      c) When the initial population is 2, the growth factor is .10 (equal to 10%), and 10 years pass

      4. From the U.S. Census Bureau’s Historical National Population Estimates, 1900 to 1999, record the estimated national population in 1999 and the estimated average annual percent change (growth rate given in percent) for that year.  Using the 1999 data, predict the population in:

      a) 2000

      b) 2010

      c) 10,000 A.D. (Yes, the year 10,000!)

      5. Compare your results to the estimated values given in the International Database (IDB) Summary Demographic Data for the U.S. as well as the U.S. Population Clock.

      a) How close were your results?

      b) Why might they be different?

      6. From the IDB, find a country other than the United States.  Find its current population and its growth rate, then predict the population in:

      a) 2011

      b) 2020

      c) 10,000

      7. From what you’ve learned:

      a) Is this exponential model good for predicting population in the short term?

      b) In the long term?

      c) What about over thousands of years?

      Extinctions Through Time

      The graph shows the percentages of genera (singular: genus) that have gone extinct during different geologic periods. The periods are shown along the top of the graph. Genera are groups of related species. For example, cat species belong to the genus Felis.

      The most important extinction event for you, as a mammal, comes with the mass extinction that occurred at the end of the Cretaceous Period. At that time, the dinosaurs disappeared and mammal species rose in number. Use the graph to answer the Analyze and Conclude questions on the next page.

      extinctions2

      Analyze and Conclude

      1. What is plotted on the y-axis?
      2. What do the text balloons in the graph point to?
      3. Which mass extinction killed off the highest percentage of genera?
      4. Describe the overall pattern of extinction shown on the graph.
      5. Can you conclude from the graph alone the percentage of species that became extinct during different periods? Why or why not?

      Build Science Skills

      What evidence is this graph probably based on? Why does the graph use percentages instead of actual numbers? How would data from the earlier periods be different from data available from more recent periods? Explain your reasoning.

       

      Family Chromosomes

      Choose two family members. For these two family members and yourself, you will draw a chromosome map for 5 characteristics. Each chromosome map should show where the characteristic is on the chromosome and what the trait is. Make sure to keep the traits in the same place for each of the three chromosomes.

      Fat & Protein Test
      1. Form groups according to the instructions.
      2. From home (or school), each group should bring in three foods that they think are high in fat and three foods that they think are high in protein.
      3. Measure out 5 grams of each of the foods.
      4. Test the first three foods for fats, rubbing the food against a blank sheet of paper for 10 seconds. Note how translucent the paper becomes.
      5. Test the other three foods for proteins, using the Biuret reagent according to the instructions.

      Fermentation

      You can complete this homework in pairs or groups of up to three people. You will need the following materials: 1 package of yeast, warm water, 1 teaspoon sugar, spoons, and a large bowl. Yeast are alive, but inactive unless they have food (sugar) and warmth. When they eat the sugar, they will give off a gas.

      1. Pour in a large bowl and add 1/4 cup of warm water and 1 teaspoon sugar.
      2. Now wait about 10 minutes. When you check it, you should see bubbles.
      3. The bubbles you see are the gas. Using the chemical formula for fermentation, determine what gas this is. What beverages do you know that have this gas? How do you think they get this gas in those beverages?
      4. What foods are produced by the process of fermentation (hint: think about what yeast is used for)?
      5. Our bodies sometimes use fermentation in order to produce energy, but only when we can’t oxygen. Do the yeast need oxygen in order to survive? How could you test your hypothesis?

      Final Exam: 1st Semester

      For your final, you will receive 20 of the following questions.  Each question will be treated as an OGT short-answer question, and you will receive up to 2 points per question.  You will be allowed to use your notebook on the final exam. Remember, the question will ask for:

      –         One answer and one reason, OR

      –         Two answers

      Giving a simple answer will never receive full credit.  You can use the following template to help you:


      Fill in the power verb (or words) in the question in order to determine what the question is asking

      –         Fill in the first answer in the first box

      –         Fill in the reason or second answer in the second box

      The questions below are organized by assignment:

      • What is Science?

      à  Identify the difference between a hypothesis and a theory.  Give an example of one theory that you are familiar with.

      • How Do You Do Science?

      à  Describe the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable.  Which variable  appears on the y-axis in a typical graph?

      • Simpsons’ Scientific Method

      à  Identify the dependent and independent variables in the following situation: “Lisa gives a new, untested genetically modified corn to 10 mice and normal feed to 10 other mice.  She then measures their length after 2 weeks on their diets.”

      • What is Life?

      à  What is one of the characteristics of life?  Explain how humans meet this characteristic of life.

      • How Did Life Begin?

      à  Describe a difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.  Give an example of an organism that has eukaryotic cells.

      • Cosmic Calendar

      à  About how long ago did the Earth form, according to scientists?  About how long after that time did life start to evolve?

      • Why Do Animals Survive or Die?

      à  In your own words, what does “survival of the fittest” mean?  Explain how this concept applies to a population of diverse butterflies that are being hunted by birds.

      • Beans and Birds

      à  Even though beans of different colors cannot move on their own or escape prey, they still evolve according to natural selection.  Explain what natural selection is and how different beans might be able to escape prey.

      • Lamarck vs. Darwin

      à  Lamarck and many other scientists thought that organisms changed over time.  Darwin thought the same thing, but in a different way.  Use the above picture to give two differences between Lamarck’s and Darwin’s theories.

      • Who Came Up With Evolution?

      à  It has been shown that evolution is happening all of the time.  Give an example of evolution that is happening right now and explain how scientists know that it is evolution.

      • Sickle-Cell Anemia

      à  Describe both an advantage and a disadvantage to being heterozygous for sickle-cell anemia.

      • Classification: Your Own Key

      à  Given the classification chart above, write one question each that would help classify these organisms in boxes “W” and “X”.

      • Dichotomous Keys: Trees

      à  What is a dichotomous key used for?  Identify a group of organisms that you could use a dichotomous key to classify.

      • How Do We Know So Much About Life?

      à  Identify two ways that scientists can determine the ages of old rocks and fossils.

      • Why is Balance Important?

      à  Invasive species sometimes change the equilibrium of an ecosystem.  Identify one invasive species and how it can change the equilibrium of an ecosystem.

      • Classroom Equilibrium

      à  Different types of organisms need different amounts of space in order to survive.  Put the following trophic levels in order, from least amount of space to greatest: Primary consumer, producer, secondary consumer.  Which trophic level needs the most amount of energy each day?

      • How Are We Using Natural Resources?

      à  State the difference between a renewable and a non-renewable resource.  Give an example of a non-renewable resource.

      • How Are We Using Natural Resources?

      à  Give an example of a renewable resource and explain where all renewable resources come from.

      • Equilibrium: Natural Selection

      à  Choose your own mammal.  Assuming that the temperature on Earth continues to rise, what is one adaptation that may be favored by groups of these mammals?  Why would this adaptation be favored?

      • Benefit and Harm

      à  In the Australian grassland, rabbits are an invasive species.  What types of organisms benefit and what types of organisms are harmed when rabbits inhabit a new area?  Choose among producers, primary consumers and secondary consumers.

      • Predator – Prey

      à  Compared with secondary consumers, give one advantage and one disadvantage of being a primary consumer.

      • How Does the Planet Work Together?

      à  Give one similarity and one difference between the biosphere and the hydrosphere.

      • Biosphere, Hydrosphere, Lithosphere, Atmosphere

      à  Give an example of an interaction between the hydrosphere and the lithosphere, and identify the spheres involved in the wind making waves in the ocean.

      • Climate Change Debate

      à  “The best solution to climate change is to change the way that we live; technology can help us limit climate change but technology is not the solution.” State whether you agree or disagree with this statement and give a reason why.

      • What Do We Need to Eat?

      à  There are several nutrients that are critical to human life.  Identify at least two foods that are rich in lipids and two foods that are rich in protein.

      • Carbon Cycle Game

      à  What is the process called that moves carbon from animals into the atmosphere?  How does carbon get back out of the atmosphere and into organisms?

      • Designing Climate Change Experiments

      à  Which of the following experiences the highest rising temperatures: Ocean, land, or air?  What consequence does that have for rising temperatures on Earth?

      • Ethics of Climate Change: Cancun 2010

      à  In your own view, what is one thing that should be done to cope with the effects of climate change?  Explain why this will help cope with climate change.

      • How Does Energy Move the Planet?

      à  Which part of the Earth is responsible for the movement of the tectonic plates, and why do the tectonic plates more?

      • Conduction/Convection/Radiation Lab

      à  What is the difference between conduction and convection?  Give an example of how heat travels by radiation.

      • BYO Seismograph

      à  What is it that seismographs measure?  How can seismographs be useful to scientists?

      • Biomes and Climate

      à  Choose any of the biomes that we studied in class.  For that biome, describe how the  precipitation and the temperatures change over the year.

      • Why Are There Different Environments?

      à  “The equator is the hottest place on Earth.”  Give two reasons that support this statement.

      • Exponential Population Growth

      à  It is estimated that there will be 341,000,000 Americans in the year 2020.  Is this number accurate?  Explain why or why not.

      • Introduction to Microscopes

      à  When using a microscope, what are two steps you must perform immediately after placing the slide on the stage, underneath the stage clips?

      • What is a Cell?

      à  What is one similarity and one difference between a cell and a virus?

      • What a Difference an “A” Makes

      à  Transcribe the following sequence of DNA into mRNA: ATTCGCCAG .  What does a cell then do with that strand of mRNA?

      • What is DNA?

      à  What is a gene, and what is the relationship between a gene and a protein?

      • Reebops

      à  If two parents are heterozygous for some trait, will all of their children necessarily look like their parents?  Explain your answer.

      • Genetic Ethics Articles

      à  Choose an ethical issue in genetics.  Identify your position and explain why you feel the way you do.

      Final Project: Agriculture

      Your objective for this project will be to clear, weed, grow and tend to the garden. You should include all of the following aspects of agriculture in your final paper:

      • Pest identification and prevention
      • Prevention of soil erosion
      • Use of sustainable tilling methods
      • Use of appropriate fertilizers (if any)
      • Identification of proper irrigation techniques
      • Plan for maintenance of the garden over the summer

      With my assistance, you will create a posted sign that will introduce people to the garden, the plants that are growing inside of it, and a variety of techniques that you have learned and utilized. This sign should be 1′ x 1′ in size and will be mounted on wood, protected by glass. You should include pictures and make sure that the sign is both self-explanatory and attractive.

      Final Project: Biophysics

      For your final project, you will be working with Dr. Watson on a variety of labs and other activities. More information to follow!

      Final Project: Biotechnology

      You will program Conway’s “The Game of Life”. There are multiple steps to this process, and we will walk through them together.

      1. Look up the rules to Conway’s “Game of Life”.
      2. I have already written the program, so go to http://shawmst.org/biology/gameoflife/ to see it in action!
      3. Download http://leroysolay.fatcow.com/GameOfLife.html to a directory on your computer.
      4. Create a new JavaScript file called GameOfLife.js in the same directory. Open it in your favorite IDE.
      5. You will start your JavaScript file with constants and variables:

        var intMinimum = 1;
        var intWidth = 100;
        var intHeight = 100;
        var intRandomCells = 1200;
        var strDeadColor = "white";
        var strAliveColor = "black";
        var strPathToImages = "http://shawmst.org/biology/wp-content/themes/twentyten-book/images/programming/";
        window.onload = function() {
        SetupGrid();
        };
      6. The first step is to make the grid object that will hold all of the cells that you will manipulate. To do this, make a new array called “Grid” with a width equal to the intWidth from the previous step.
      7. Next, you will set up the grid that you just created to make sure that it has a cell object in every part of the grid. You may have noticed that in the code from step #5 there was a function called “SetupGrid()”. You will now make this function. You will create a “for” loop that takes the variable “i” from “intMinimum” to “intWidth”. That means that it will bring i from 1 to 100. At each step, it should make a new array inside of the grid object at Grid[i]. Also, within this same loop, you should take the variable “j” from intMinimum to intHeight. Inside of that loop, you should make a new cell object, passing it the variables “i” and “j”.
      8. In the previous step, you referenced a Cell object, but you don’t have one yet! Let’s make a Cell object that takes two inputs called “x” and “y”. Use the following code to start your Cell object:

        function Cell(x, y) {
        this.x = x;
        this.y = y;
        }

        All this Cell object does is copy the two variables passed to it to local variables. It will do much more later!
      9. The first thing we need to do with the Cell object is to give it another local variable called “boolOn” and set the default value to false. This means that we are assuming that it starts in the off position, but we can change it later. Also, we need to write a local function for the Cell object called “Switch”:

        this.Switch = function() {
        }

        Inside this code, we need to check to see if “boolOn” is on or off. If it’s on, we need to switch it to off by calling another local function called “SetDisplay” and passing it the value “false”. If it’s off, we need to switch it to on by calling “SetDisplay” with the value “true”. You will also need to copy the SetDisplay function from below (I’m providing it because it does things that you haven’t learned yet):

        this.SetDisplay = function(boolAlive) {
        this.strColor = strDeadColor;
        if (boolAlive) this.strColor = strAliveColor;
        document.getElementById("grid_" + this.x + "_" + this.y).innerHTML = "<img src='" + strPathToImages + this.strColor + ".png'>";
        this.intReturn = 0;
        if (this.boolOn != boolAlive) this.intReturn = 1;
        this.boolOn = boolAlive;
        return this.intReturn;
        }
      10. Now that we can switch cells and set their display value, we need to make sure that all cells, when created, start in the off position. Inside of the Cell object, write a line (after the SetDisplay function) that sets the display to the “off” position.
      11. The web page that you downloaded automatically calls a function every time you click a cell. Interestingly, that function is called ClickCell and it takes the x and y coordinates as input values. Write a function (outside of the Cell object) to retrieve the appropriate cell from the grid and call the “Switch” function on that cell object.
      12. Now your program should work so that you can click on any cell and it will switch it from one color to the other. If it doesn’t work, you will need to check your work, check to see if the web browser is displaying any errors, and fix them appropriately.
      13. The next stage of the program is where we display a randomized grid of cells that are “on”. Do this by creating a function called “DisplayRandomGrid” (because that’s what the web page is sending to your program) with one input variable – the number of cells to randomly turn on. Write a “while” loop that checks to see if the number of cells is greater than 0. Within that while loop you will use the following code to create random coordinates on the grid:

        i = Math.round((Math.random() * (intWidth - 1))) + intMinimum;
        j = Math.round((Math.random() * (intHeight - 1))) + intMinimum;

        Now, set the display for this cell in the grid to true. Also, inside the loop you should reduce the number of cells to randomly turn on by one.
      14. The last stage of this program is where we actually implement Conway’s Game of Life! The web page calls a function called “Start” so go ahead and create this function. I will leave this part up to you to figure out, but you need to loop through every cell in the grid and figure out whether or not a cell should live or die based on how many live neighbors it has. Call your function to determine how many neighbors a cell has “NumberOfNeighborsOn” and call a function on the Cell object in the Grid called “Mark” if it should be marked to stay alive in the next generation. Lastly, this Start function should call another function to display the entire grid.
      15. In the previous step, you called a method “Mark” on the cell object. Write this function now. We’ll store this mark value as a local variable called “boolMark”. Default this value to false when the cell object is created. Set this value to true if the Mark function is called. While we’re here, go ahead and make another function in the Cell object called “IsOn” that returns the value of the “boolOn” local variable. We’ll use it in just a second!
      16. Now for the “NumberOfNeighborsOn” function. This function should take as input the x and y coordinates of the cell that we’re checking. It should start at the cell that is one to the left and one above and finish at the cell that is one to the right and one below. You should store the number of neighbors that are on in a variable that is initialized to 0. Check to make sure that for each cell you check, it’s above the minimum in each direction and below the maximum in each direction. Also, make sure that you are not checking the original cell itself! If this cell is on (use “IsOn” to check), add one to the number of neighbors on variable. After you’re all done, return the value of this variable.
      17. We’re almost there! Make a “DisplayGrid” function that runs through the entire grid and calls a function “SwitchToMark” for each cell object. Let’s write that function in the Cell object. The purpose of this function is to switch the actual value of the cell to the mark, on to on or off to off. Call “SetDisplay” with the mark value, then set the mark value to false.
      18. Your code should now run, so do error checking and see how it goes!

      Final Project: Crime Scene
      You will be given the following evidence for the crime of a stolen lunch in the prep room:

      – Mystery powder with footprints

      – Half-eaten food with fingerprints

      – Hand-written note and hair on the note

       

      After being given each of those clues, you will need to make a suspect list from MST teachers, then change the list depending on the new evidence. You need to follow the same procedures that you followed when you first did each of the original activities. For example, you should identify the exact shapes that you see in the fingerprints.

      You must produce a final suspect list of teachers, then look for evidence in their rooms of the crime. Once you have gathered any evidence, you must then narrow it down to your final suspect(s) and perform one-minute interviews. You then should bring your evidence to the judge (me) who will either issue a warrant for the arrest of the suspect(s) or deny the warrant based on inconclusive evidence.

      Final Project: Dissection

      For your final project, you will perform a frog (or other animal) dissection. You will need to complete a thorough virtual dissection (www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_16/BL_16.html), then a multi-day actual dissection on the specific animal.

      Frog Dissection Pre- Lab

      Why are we dissecting a frog?

      Frogs and humans are vertebrates and they have very similar organ systems. Although all of the internal organs are not exactly the same, it is helpful to learn about anatomy through dissection. We will be looking at each body system and exploring the individual organs of the frog. We will be making comparisons between the frog and yourself.

      Some individuals argue that dissecting a frog is cruel. Dissection would be a cruel practice if the frogs were mistreated. The frogs that we use in lab for our dissection were bred in Mexico for the sole purpose of scientific study. The companies use a very safe preservative to make the frogs as safe as possible. We still need to wear gloves and wash our hands while working with the frogs.

      Computers can be used to simulate a dissection. This method is very popular with some students. I do not believe that the computer experience is anywhere near as valuable as the actual dissection. But, I do think that it is a good tool. We will be going through a ‘Virtual Dissection’ to help prepare for our actual dissection.

      The frogs we use, gave their lives for science. They are ‘Organ Donors’ who would like us to learn more about them (and ourselves). In order to best use this opportunity to learn and show respect for the frog, we must follow all instructions and safety procedures.

      For our safety, we will be wearing gloves and goggles during the dissection. Aprons will be available for students. EVERYBODY must wash their hands before they leave the room. Hair should be tied back. No gum chewing or eating at all.

      Characteristics of amphibians

      Because their eggs are not in a shell, they must develop in a wet environment. Most amphibians do not have scales. Their skin is thin, smooth, and moist. They do not drink water! Instead, they absorb it through their skin. This is a major reason why most amphibians prefer to live in damp environments (or near water). Amphibians can breath through their lungs or through their skin.

      Ecological Indicators

      Amphibians are often called ecological indicators. When large numbers of amphibians begin to die or show deformities, this may indicate a problem with the environment. Sometimes deformities are caused by other living organisms. They are good ecological indicator because their skin is responsible for gas and water exchanges- and thus they are extremely sensitive to changes in air and water quality.

      1.Frogs are amphibians, and do not drink water. How do frogs get their water?

      2.Why are amphibians considered to be a good ecological indicators?

      Frog Life Cycle

      http://allaboutfrogs.org/weird/general/cycle.html

      Below you will find questions.

      They are organized by section.

      Use the website above to answer.

      3.Spawn (egg-mass). Describe how a male frog fertilizes eggs.

      4.Egg. Frogs lay thousands of eggs at a time because most will not survive. Roughly 5% of all egg laid, even hatch. How long does a tadpole egg take to hatch (on average)?

      5.Tadpole. Tadpoles are born with gills, and spend ALL of their time in the water. How long before the gills start getting grown over (and covered) by skin?

      6.Tadpole with Legs. When do legs start to sprout?

      7.Young Frog. This life stage looks just like frog, but still have a tail. How many weeks old is a frog in this stage?

      8.Frog. How long does it take a frog to fully develop from tadpole to frog?

      9.Frog. What other factors can influence the grow rate of frogs?

      Virtual Frog Dissection

      http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_16/BL_16.html

      Below you will find questions.

      They are organized by section.

      Use the website above to answer.

      Introduction

      10.Why Dissect. Why are frogs a good model to use when studying the digestive system (as well as other systems)?

      11.Natural History. Frogs and humans are both vertebrates. What does this mean they both have?

      12.Dissection Tools. What are the probe and scissors used for?

      Click on Menu on the bottom at the bottom of the page when you are ready to move on to the next section

      External Anatomy

      13.Orientation. Is it possible to tell if a frog is male or female by external appearance?

      14.Skin. What does the mucus do for the skin?

      15.Head. Where are the tympanic membranes (eardrums)? Do frogs have a pinna?

      16.Cloaca. What materials would pass through a cloaca.

      17.Legs. How many hind leg toes does a frog have?

      Click on Menu on the bottom at the bottom of the page when you are ready to move on to the next section

      Internal Anatomy

      18.The Initial Cut. Are you suppose to push the pins in at an angle or straight down? What is the benefit of pushing the pins in this way?

      19.The Initial Cut. Describe the first cut you will be making. Include where you will be cutting and how deep.

      20.The Initial Cut. Why are there so many blood vessels in between the skin and muscle layers?

      21.Digestive System. Which organ is the pancreas located closest to?

      22.Digestive System. The movie asks you to remove the intestines. What other organ(s) is/are removed with the intestines when you click on the tweezers?

      23.Respiratory System. What does the skin do in frogs that it does not do in humans?

      24.Respiratory System. Where are the lungs located in a frog (relative to the heart)?

      25.Circulatory (Cardiovascular) System. How many chambers does a frogs heart have?

      26.Circulatory (Cardiovascular) System What is a frogs heart missing when compared to a humans (what chamber)?

      27.Circulatory (Cardiovascular) System Why is the three chambered heart not as efficient as a four chambered heart?

      28.Reproductive System. In your own words, describe where are the testes located?

      29.Reproductive System In your own words, describe where are the ovaries located?

      30.Excretory System. What happens to blood that enters the kidneys?

      31.Excretory System What organ connects the kidneys to the (urinary) bladder?

      32.Nervous System. This video is long, and parts without sound. Please watch patiently. What makes up a frogs nervous system?

      33.Muscular System. Which part of the body are frog’s muscles in the upper leg responsible for moving?

      34.Skeletal System. How many bones are found in the axial region?

      35.Skeletal System. How many bones are found in the appendicular?

      Follow-up.

      After you are done with the website portion of this pre-lab, complete the following questions:

      36.What is the purpose of this lab?

      37.What lab safety guidelines will be practiced during this lab?

      1. 38.Sketch the pattern of where you should cut to
        make the first incision on your frog.
        Draw directly on the picture to the right.

      When you are finished with the WebQuest here is a list of places to visit/things to do:

      1. 1.Take the Pre-Lab quiz below.

        https://spreadsheets.google.com/viewform?hl=en&formkey=dHg1ZzV1OG1wUzdFOC1rRno4cmZ2NkE6MQ#gid=0

      You must pass this with a score of 85% or better in order to do the dissection. No notes are allowed. This will count as a grade.

      1. 2.When you are done with the quiz, visit these additional sites for virtual frog dissections. When going through the dissections think about how they compare to the one we just went through.

      http://www.froguts.com

      http://frog.edschool.virginia.edu/

      After you have completed #1 and #2 above, you may choose which of the following to do in any order you want. I have ranked them based on the quality of the site, and how much I think you will enjoy them (highest to lowest). Some links (teachertube.com) will require you to watch a short ad before viewing the video.

      1.Teacher guided video of a dissection of a rat. Good site. Awesome accent. http://www1.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=101109

      2.Colossal Squid. Here you can view virtual info as well as real photos and videos. http://squid.tepapa.govt.nz/anatomy/interactive

      3.Digital Videos webpage. This page has video of dissection of sheep brain, frog heart, and crayfish brain. *WARNING* These videos are of live frogs being dissected. If you feel this will disturb you, then do NOT watch. This site is totally optional. http://www.wellesley.edu/Biology/Concepts/Html/digitalvideos.html

      4.Pig Heart dissection video. This aussie guides you through the dissection of a pig heart. There is blood in this video. Great review of the heart, and its chambers. http://www1.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=60969

      5.Sheep eye dissection video. A little far away from video to see anything great, but good commentary. Too bad his class wont be quiet! http://www1.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=145439

      6.Frog Dissection Video. Long video, but great step-by-step for what to expect when dissecting a frog. No Audio. http://www1.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=155411&title=Frog_Dissection_Instructions

      7.Fetal Pig dissection pictures. This page contains photos that are labeled with the organs they are showing. http://www.execulink.com/~ekimmel/fetal0.htm

      8.Rat dissection pictures. http://www.k-state.edu/organismic/rat_dissection.htm

      9.Salmon Virtual dissection. This site is cheesy, but you may enjoy it if you like cheese. http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00548/Dissection.html

      10.Perch dissection pictures. This site contains a few pictures of the internal organs of male and female perch (fish). http://www.bio200.buffalo.edu/labs/tutor/Perch/Perch.html

      Final Project: Plastic Bottle Greenhouse

      Under my supervision, you will design and build a plastic bottle greenhouse. There are many plans online for doing this, but we will set about making one with the plastic bottles I have collected and any more that you can collect over the next two weeks. As a group, you will submit a plan and start to work on preparing the materials. Look online for ideas and existing plans that you would like to work with!

      Fingerprinting, Part 1

      The History of Fingerprints

      Your Assignment

      1. What is Dactyloscopy?
      2. Why were fingerprints used in Ancient Babylon?
      3. When and why were fingerprints first used in the United States?
      4. In which country were fingerprints used to identify a woman who murdered her two sons?
      5. Which state in the United States first used fingerprints for criminals?
      6. What famous criminal case made fingerprinting the standard for personal identification?
      7. Make a full-color timeline (you can use the magazines for pictures) of fingerprinting in the world. Put it on two colored pieces of paper and include at least 10 events.

      Why Fingerprint Identification?
      Fingerprints offer an infallible means of personal identification. That is the essential explanation for fingerprints having replaced other methods of establishing the identities of criminals reluctant to admit previous arrests.

      The science of fingerprint Identification stands out among all other forensic sciences for many reasons, including the following:

      • Has served governments worldwide for over 100 years to provide accurate identification of criminals. No two fingerprints have ever been found alike in many billions of human and automated computer comparisons.  Fingerprints are the very basis for criminal history foundation at every police agency on earth.

      • Established the first forensic professional organization, the International Association for Identification (IAI), in 1915.

      • Established the first professional certification program for forensic scientists, the IAI’s Certified Latent Print Examiner program (in 1977), issuing certification to those meeting stringent criteria and revoking certification for serious errors such as erroneous identifications.

      • Remains the most commonly used forensic evidence worldwide – in most jurisdictions fingerprint examination cases match or outnumber all other forensic examination casework combined.

      • Continues to expand as the premier method for positively identifying persons, with tens of thousands of persons added to fingerprint repositories daily in America alone – far outdistancing similar databases in growth.

      • Worldwide, fingerprints harvested from crime “scenes lead to more suspects and generate more evidence in court than all other forensic laboratory techniques combined. “

      Other visible human characteristics tend to change – fingerprints do not.  Barring injuries or surgery causing deep scarring, or diseases such as leprosy damaging the formative layers of friction ridge skin (injuries, scarring and diseases tend to exhibit telltale indicators of unnatural change), finger and palm print features have never been shown to move about or change their unit relationship throughout the life of a person.

      In earlier civilizations, branding and even maiming were used to mark the criminal for what he or she was. The thief was deprived of the hand which committed the thievery. Ancient Romans employed the tattoo needle to identify and prevent desertion of mercenary soldiers.

      Before the mid-1800s, law enforcement officers with extraordinary visual memories, so-called “camera eyes,” identified previously arrested offenders by sight. Photography lessened the burden on memory but was not the answer to the criminal identification problem. Personal appearances change.

      Around 1870, French anthropologist Alphonse Bertillon devised a system to measure and record the dimensions of certain bony parts of the body. These measurements were reduced to a formula which, theoretically, would apply only to one person and would not change during his/her adult life.

      The Bertillon System was generally accepted for thirty years. But it never recovered from the events of 1903, when a man named Will West was sentenced to the U.S. Penitentiary at Leavenworth, Kansas. It was discovered that there was already a prisoner at the penitentiary at the time, whose Bertillon measurements were nearly the same, and his name was William West.

      Upon investigation, there were indeed two men who looked exactly alike. Their names were Will and William West respectively. Their Bertillon measurements were close enough to identify them as the same person. However, a fingerprint comparison quickly and correctly identified them as two different people. (Per prison records discovered later, the West men were apparently identical twin brothers and each had a record of correspondence with the same immediate family relatives.)

      PrehistoricPicture writing of a hand with ridge patterns was discovered in Nova Scotia. In ancient Babylon, fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions. In ancient China, thumb prints were found on clay seals.

      Chinese Clay Seal

      In 14th century Persia, various official government papers had fingerprints (impressions), and one government official, a doctor, observed that no two fingerprints were exactly alike.

      Marcella Malpighi
      Malpighi
      1686 – Malpighi In 1686, Marcello Malpighi, an anatomy professor at the University of Bologna, noted in his treatise; ridges, spirals and loops in fingerprints. He made no mention of their value as a tool for individual identification. A layer of skin was named after him; “Malpighi” layer, which is approximately 1.8mm thick.
      Prof Purkinje
      1823 – PurkinjeIn 1823, John Evangelist Purkinje, an anatomy professor at the University of Breslau, published his thesis discussing nine fingerprint patterns, but he too made no mention of the value of fingerprints for personal identification.
      Sir Wm. Herschel

      Herschel

      Herschel's FPs recorded over a period of 57 yrs
      Herschel’s fingerprints recorded over a period of 57 years

      1858 – Herschel
      The English first began using fingerprints in July of 1858, when Sir William James Herschel, Chief Magistrate of the Hooghly district in Jungipoor, India, first used fingerprints on native contracts. On a whim, and without thought toward personal identification, Herschel had Rajyadhar Konai, a local businessman, impress his hand print on a contract.

      The idea was merely “… to frighten [him] out of all thought of repudiating his signature.” The native was suitably impressed, and Herschel made a habit of requiring palm prints–and later, simply the prints of the right Index and Middle fingers–on every contract made with the locals. Personal contact with the document, they believed, made the contract more binding than if they simply signed it. Thus, the first wide-scale, modern-day use of fingerprints was predicated, not upon scientific evidence, but upon superstitious beliefs.

      As his fingerprint collection grew, however, Herschel began to note that the inked impressions could, indeed, prove or disprove identity. While his experience with fingerprinting was admittedly limited, Sir William Herschel’s private conviction that all fingerprints were unique to the individual, as well as permanent throughout that individual’s life, inspired him to expand their use.

      1863 – Coulier
      Professor Paul-Jean Coulier, of Val-de-Grâce in Paris, publishes his observations that (latent) fingerprints can be developed on paper by iodine fuming, explains how to preserve (fix) such developed impressions and mentions the potential for identifying suspects’ fingerprints by use of a magnifying glass.   3, 4
      Dr. Henry Faulds
      Faulds
      1880 – Faulds – First Latent Print Identification
      During the 1870s, Dr. Henry Faulds, the British Surgeon-Superintendent of Tsukiji Hospital in Tokyo, Japan, took up the study of “skin-furrows” after noticing finger marks on specimens of “prehistoric” pottery. A learned and industrious man, Dr. Faulds not only recognized the importance of fingerprints as a means of identification, but devised a method of classification as well.In 1880, Faulds forwarded an explanation of his classification system and a sample of the forms he had designed for recording inked impressions, to Sir Charles Darwin. Darwin, in advanced age and ill health, informed Dr. Faulds that he could be of no assistance to him, but promised to pass the materials on to his cousin, Francis Galton.

      Also in 1880, Dr. Henry Faulds published an article in the Scientific Journal, “Nature” (nature). He discussed fingerprints as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. He is also credited with the first fingerprint identification of a greasy fingerprint left on an alcohol bottle.

      Gilbert Thompson Portrait
      1882 – Thompson

      In 1882, Gilbert Thompson of the U.S. Geological Survey in New Mexico, used his own thumb print on a document to prevent forgery. This is the first known use of fingerprints in the United States.  Click the image below to see a larger image of an 1882 receipt issued by Gilbert Thompson to “Lying Bob” in the amount of 75 dollars.
      Thompson Receipt
      Alphonse Bertillon 1882 – Bertillon

      Alphonse Bertillon, a Clerk in the Prefecture of Police of at Paris, France, devised a system of classification, known as Anthropometry or the Bertillon System, using measurements of parts of the body.  Bertillon’s system included measurements such as head length, head width, length of the middle finger, length of the left foot;  and length of the forearm from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger.

      Diagram of Bertillon Measurements blank space Forearm Measurement blank space Forearm Measurement Overhead View

      In 1888 Bertillon was made Chief of the newly created Department of Judicial Identity where he used anthropometry as the primary means of identification. He later introduced Fingerprints but relegated them to a secondary role in the category of special marks.

      Samuel L. Clemens Twain (Clemens) 1883 – Mark Twain (Samuel L. Clemens) In Mark Twain’s book, “Life on the Mississippi”, a murderer was identified by the use of fingerprint identification. In a later book by Mark Twain, “Pudd’n Head Wilson”, there was a dramatic court trial on fingerprint identification. A more recent movie was made from this book.
      Sir Francis Galton Galton 1888 – Galton Sir Francis Galton, a British anthropologist and a cousin of Charles Darwin, began his observations of fingerprints as a means of identification in the 1880’s.
      Juan Vucetich 1891 – Vucetich Juan Vucetich, an Argentine Police Official, began the first fingerprint files based on Galton pattern types. At first, Vucetich included the Bertillon System with the files.

      Juan Vucetich thumb print and signature Right Thumb Impression and Signature of Juan Vucetich
      Buenos Aires Police Logo 1892 – Vucetich & Galton Juan Vucetich made the first criminal fingerprint identification in 1892. He was able to identify Francis Rojas, a woman who murdered her two sons and cut her own throat in an attempt to place blame on another. Her bloody print was left on a door post, proving her identity as the murderer. Francis Rojas' inked fingerprints Francis Rojas’ Inked Fingerprints Sir Francis Galton published his book, “Fingerprints”, establishing the individuality and permanence of fingerprints. The book included the first classification system for fingerprints. Galton’s primary interest in fingerprints was as an aid in determining heredity and racial background. While he soon discovered that fingerprints offered no firm clues to an individual’s intelligence or genetic history, he was able to scientifically prove what Herschel and Faulds already suspected: that fingerprints do not change over the course of an individual’s lifetime, and that no two fingerprints are exactly the same. According to his calculations, the odds of two individual fingerprints being the same were 1 in 64 billion. Galton identified the characteristics by which fingerprints can be identified. A few of these same characteristics (minutia) are basically still in use today, and are sometimes referred to as Galton Details.
      Azizul Haque Haque 1897 – Haque & Bose On 12 June 1897, the Council of the Governor General of India approved a committee report that fingerprints should be used for classification of criminal records. Later that year, the Calcutta (now Kolkata) Anthropometric Bureau became the world’s first Fingerprint Bureau. Working in the Calcutta Anthropometric Bureau (before it became the Fingerprint Bureau) were Azizul Haque and Hem Chandra Bose. Haque and Bose are the two Indian fingerprint experts credited with primary development of the Henry System of fingerprint classification (named for their supervisor, Edward Richard Henry). The Henry classification system is still used in English-speaking countries (primarily as the manual filing system for accessing paper archive files that have not been scanned and computerized).
      Sir Edward Richard Henry Henry 1900 – Henry The United Kingdom Home Secretary Office conducted an inquiry into “Identification of Criminals by Measurement and Fingerprints.” Mr. Edward Richard Henry (later Sir ER Henry) appeared before the inquiry committee to explain the system published in his recent book “The Classification and Use of Fingerprints.” The committee recommended adoption of fingerprinting as a replacement for the relatively inaccurate Bertillon system of anthropometric measurement, which only partially relied on fingerprints for identification.
      Met Police Crest 1901 – Henry The Fingerprint Branch at New Scotland Yard (London Metropolitan Police) was created in July 1901 using the Henry System of Fingerprint Classification.
      1902 First systematic use of fingerprints in the U.S. by the New York Civil Service Commission for testing. Dr. Henry P. DeForrest pioneers U.S. fingerprinting.
      1903 The New York State Prison system began the first systematic use of fingerprints in the U.S. for criminals.
      1904 The use of fingerprints began in Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary in Kansas, and the St. Louis Police Department. They were assisted by a Sergeant from Scotland Yard who had been on duty at the St. Louis World’s Fair Exposition guarding the British Display. Sometime after the St. Louis World’s Fair, the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) created America’s first national fingerprint repository, called the National Bureau of Criminal Identification.
      US Army Seal 1905 U.S. Army begins using fingerprints. U.S. Department of Justice forms the Bureau of Criminal Identification in Washington, DC to provide a centralized reference collection of fingerprint cards. Two years later the U.S. Navy started, and was joined the next year by the Marine Corp. During the next 25 years more and more law enforcement agencies join in the use of fingerprints as a means of personal identification. Many of these agencies began sending copies of their fingerprint cards to the National Bureau of Criminal Identification, which was established by the International Association of Police Chiefs.
      US Navy Seal 1907 U.S. Navy begins using fingerprints. U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Criminal Identification moves to Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary where it is staffed at least partially by inmates.
      USMC Seal 1908 U.S. Marine Corps begins using fingerprints.
      IAI Logo 1915 Inspector Harry H. Caldwell of the Oakland, California Police Department’s Bureau of Identification wrote numerous letters to “Criminal Identification Operators” in August 1915, requesting them to meet in Oakland for the purpose of forming an organization to further the aims of the identification profession. In October 1915, a group of twenty-two identification personnel met and initiated the “International Association for Criminal Identification” In 1918, the organization was renamed the International Association for Identification (IAI) due to the volume of non-criminal identification work performed by members. Sir Francis Galton’s right index finger appears in the IAI logo. The IAI’s official publication is the Journal of Forensic Identification.
      Edmond Locard 1918 Edmond Locard wrote that if 12 points (Galton’s Details) were the same between two fingerprints, it would suffice as a positive identification. Locard’s 12 points seems to have been based on an unscientific “improvement” over the eleven anthropometric measurements (arm length, height, etc.) used to “identify” criminals before the adoption of fingerprints.
      FBI Seal 1924 In 1924, an act of congress established the Identification Division of the FBI. The IACP’s National Bureau of Criminal Identification and the US Justice Department’s Bureau of Criminal Identification consolidated to form the nucleus of the FBI fingerprint files. 1946 By 1946, the FBI had processed 100 million fingerprint cards in manually maintained files; and by 1971, 200 million cards. With the introduction of automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) technology, the files were split into computerized criminal files and manually maintained civil files. Many of the manual files were duplicates though, the records actually represented somewhere in the neighborhood of 25 to 30 million criminals, and an unknown number of individuals in the civil files.
      Logo of The Fingerprint Society The Fingerprint Society 1974 In 1974, four employees of the Hertfordshire (United Kingdom) Fingerprint Bureau contacted fingerprint experts throughout the UK and began organization of that country’s first professional fingerprint organization, the National Society of Fingerprint Officers. The organization initially consisted of only UK experts, but quickly expanded to international scope and was renamed The Fingerprint Society in 1977. The initials F.F.S. behind a fingerprint expert’s name indicates they are recognized as a Fellow of the Fingerprint Society. The Society hosts annual educational conferences with speakers and delegates attending from many countries.
      IAI Logo 1977 At New Orleans, Louisiana on 1 August 1977, delegates to the 62nd Annual Conference of the International Association for Identification (IAI) voted to establish the world’s first certification program for fingerprint experts. Since 1977, the IAI’s Latent Print Certification Board has proficiency tested thousands of applicants, and periodically proficiency tests all IAI Certified Latent Print Examiners (CLPEs). Contrary to claims (in the 1990s and later) that fingerprint experts profess their body of practitioners never make erroneous identifications, the Latent Print Certification program proposed, adopted, and in-force since 1977, specifically recognizes that such mistakes do sometimes occur, and must be addressed by the Latent Print Certification Board. During the past three decades, CLPE status has become a prerequisite for journeyman fingerprint expert positions in many US state and federal government forensic laboratories. IAI CLPE status is considered by many identification professionals to be a measurement of excellence.
      2005 INTERPOL’s Automated Fingerprint Identification System repository exceeds 50,000 sets fingerprints for important international criminal records from 184 member countries. Over 170 countries have 24 x 7 interface ability with INTERPOL expert fingerprint services.
      Department of Homeland Security Seal 2012 The largest AFIS repository in America is operated by the Department of Homeland Security’s US Visit Program, containing over 120 million persons’ fingerprints, many in the form of two-finger records. The two-finger records are non-compliant with FBI and Interpol standards, but sufficient for positive identification and valuable for forensics because index fingers and thumbs are the most commonly identified crime scene fingerprints. The US Visit Program has been migrating from two flat (not rolled) fingerprints to ten flat fingerprints since 2007. “Fast capture” research will hopefully enable implementation of ten “rolled print equivalent” fingerprint recording (within 15 seconds per person fingerprinted) in future years. The largest tenprint AFIS repository in America is the FBI’s Integrated AFIS (IAFIS) in Clarksburg, WV. IAFIS has more than 60 million individual computerized fingerprint records (both criminal and civil applicant records). Old paper fingerprint cards for the civil files are still manually maintained in a warehouse facility (rented shopping center space) in Fairmont, WV, though most enlisted military service member fingerprint cards received after 1990, and all military-related fingerprint cards received after 19 May 2000, have now been computerized and can be searched internally by the FBI. In “Next Generation Identification,” the FBI may make civil file AFIS searches available to US law enforcement agencies through remote interface. The FBI is also planning to eventually expand their automated identification activities to include other biometrics such as palm, iris and face. All US states and many large cities have their own AFIS databases, each with a subset of fingerprint records that is not stored in any other database. Many also store and search palmprints. Law enforcement fingerprint interface standards are important to enable sharing records and reciprocal searches to identify criminals. Interpol, the European Union’s Prüm Treaty, the FBI’s Next Generation Identification and other initiatives seek to improve cross-jurisdiction sharing (probing and sharing/pushing) of important finger and palm print data to identify criminals.
      AADHAR Logo The Future By March 2012, the Unique Identification Authority of India is scheduled to possess the world’s largest fingerprint (multi-modal biometric) system, with over 200 million fingerprint, face and iris biometric records. UIAI plans to collect as many as 600 million multi-modal record by the end of 2014. India’s Unique Identification project is also known as Aadhaar, a word meaning “the foundation” in several Indian languages. Aadhaar is a voluntary program, with the ambitious goal of eventually providing reliable national ID documents for most of India’s 1.2 billion residents. With a database many times larger than any other in the world, Aadhaar’s ability to leverage automated fingerprint and iris modalities (and potentially automated face recognition) enables rapid and reliable automated searching and identification impossible to accomplish with fingerprint technology alone, especially when searching children and elderly residents’ fingerprints.

      Fingerprinting, Part 2

      Can we invent a way to classify fingerprints?

      Facts:

      • The patterns of ridges on our finger pads are unique: no two individuals—even identical twins—have fingerprints that are exactly alike.
      • We leave impressions—or prints—of these patterns on everything we touch with any pressure.
      • The prints can be visible, as when our fingers are dirty or oily, or they can be latent, as when they are made only by the sweat that is always present on our finger ridges.
      • Injuries such as burns or scrapes will not change the ridge structure: when new skin grows in, the same pattern will come back.
      • Dactyloscopy is the practice of using fingerprints to identify someone.

      Principles:

      • Fingerprints can be classified by pattern types, by the size of those patterns, and by the position of the patterns on the finger.

      Materials:

      1. 3×5-inch index cards, at least two per participant
      2. pencils and a sharpener
      3. transparent tape; 3/4-inch is better than 1/2-inch
      4. good lighting
      5. hand magnifiers—nice to have but not essential
      tented arch image
      whorl image

      Procedures and Activity

      Introduction

      If you want to use fingerprints to solve crimes, you must have a way to describe and sort and find prints that are similar to the one you find at a crime scene. The FBI has over 200 million prints on file; they can’t look through every single one to find a match!

      Today we are going to look at some of our fingerprints and see how we might sort them into categories, just as fingerprint specialists do.

      Activity

      1. Divide participants into groups of 2-6
      2. Rub a pencil over the central part of an index card until it is covered with graphite.
      3. Have another card for recording your prints and write your names on the lined side and turn it over.
      4. Each participant will be making prints of the index finger and the middle finger of the same hand. Start with your dominant hand.
      5. You want to make prints not of your fingertips but of the pads of their fingers, near the joint crease, because that is where the most interesting patterns are.
      6. Press and roll your finger firmly on the penciled area, then stick a short piece of tape to the finger pad area, pressing down thoroughly, remove the tape and press it onto your print record card.
      7. Immediately label your print “L” or “R” for left or right hand and “I” or “M” for index or middle finger.
      8. Repeat procedure for the second finger. Do it over until you get two good prints.
      9. After all prints are made and labeled, compare prints for similarities and differences.
        • Are the two prints from the same hand more alike than prints from different people? How?
        • What kinds of patterns do you see? Give names to the patterns (circles, triangles, curvy lines)
        • Look below for the “official” names for patterns (loops, whorls, and arches).
        • What are the positions of those patterns on the finger (how close they are to the joint line)?
        • In which direction do the loops curve—toward the thumb or toward the pinkie finger? (Remember that taped prints are like looking at your finger palm-up and inked prints are mirror images.)
        • Compare the size of those patterns (such as how many ridges make up a loop).

        Note that, while scars, such as the white line on one of the sample prints in this lesson, are the easiest patterns to see, they cannot be used either for classification or identification. They are not unique in the way that ridge patterns are, and they also change over time—making them unreliable for these purposes.

      10. In which of these groups would you look for a loop that leans to the left? Would it make sense to look through the whorls?
      11. Which is the most common pattern?  Graph the results of each type.
      left loop image radial loop image right loop image

      Closing – Original Question

      1. How can fingerprints be classified?
      2. How would classification make it easier to match one print against a database of many?

      Look for evidence of a plan to search systematically: for example, to look through the left-leaning loops with eight ridges that are close to the finger joint.

      Left-leaning loop Right-leaning loop Whorl
      Double loop Double loop with central pocket
      Plain arch Tented arch Arch with loop & scar

      Fingerprinting, Part 3

      Fingerprinting Identification

      Federal Bureau of Investigation Educational Web Publication

      For over 100 years, police agencies have had a powerful tool in combating crime. The use of fingerprinting allows crime fighters an extremely accurate means of identification. Other means of identification (such as hair color or style, weight, or eye color) may change, but fingerprints do not.

      In earlier civilizations, branding, tattooing, or even maiming was used to mark and identify criminals. Although man had been aware of the fact that each person possessed a unique set of ridges on the fingers and hands, the use of these prints for criminal identification was not accepted until the early 1900s.

      The FBI Identification Division was born in 1924, with the receipt of 810,188 fingerprint files, mostly from the Leavenworth Penitentiary. This collection became increasingly important due to the emergence of criminals who regularly crossed state lines.

      Currently, the FBI possesses over 250 million sets of fingerprint records. This enormous collection is composed of both criminal and civil prints. The civil file includes the prints of both government employees and applicants for federal jobs.

      All standard fingerprint cards are eight-inch square pieces of paper,with a thickness much like that of thin cardboard. At the present time, the FBI receives over 34,000 fingerprint cards each work day. The photograph to the right is an example of a standard FBI fingerprint card.

      If all of the fingerprint cards on file with the FBI were piled on top of each other, they would equal one hundred and thirty-three stacks the size of the Empire State Building!

      Fingerprints differ from person to person based upon distinctive patterns of ridges. There are seven different finger print patterns used for identification purposes.

      Latent fingerprints are difficult to see but can be made visible for examination. Any fingerprint left at a crime scene (as opposed to one which is on a fingerprint card) is known as a latent fingerprint. Latent fingerprints may be left on almost all surfaces, sometimes even on human skin. Numerous techniques are used to make latent prints visible, such as lasers, powders, alternate light sources, and a process known as “glue fuming”.

      The West Case

      For many years, scientists did not use fingerprinting as a serious tool for identifying criminals. Instead, they used a system which recorded the dimensions of certain skeletal body parts (known as the Bertillon System). But in 1903, Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary received a prisoner by the name of Will West.

      Shockingly, Will had almost the same Bertillon measurements (as well as appearance) as another prisoner currently serving a life sentence for murder. But even though the two unrelated criminals looked identical, and had similar names, their fingerprints were, of course, different.

      Thanks to this remarkable case, fingerprinting became the standard for personal identification.

      Questions

      1. What is Dactyloscopy?
      2. Why were fingerprints used in Ancient Babylon?
      3. When and why were fingerprints first used in the United States?
      4. In which country were fingerprints used to identify a woman who murdered her two sons?
      5. Which state in the United States first used fingerprints for criminals?
      6. What famous criminal case made fingerprinting the standard for personal identification?
      7. How many methods are there for taking fingerprints?
      8. How do we classify fingerprints?

      Finite Resources

      From your own experiences or others’ experiences, identify one resource that we use which is non-renewable (has a limit, or is finite). Respond in complete sentences:

      1. What is it, and why is it non-renewable?
      2. What are the consequences of its continued usage?
      3. What could people do in order to avoid using this resource? What can you do to help?
      4. Ask someone in the class for their response, and write at least one paragraph about what could be done to prevent this resource’s usage.

      Food Webs

      The above is a food web of a temperate deciduous forest. The arrows show the direction that the energy travels from organism to organism.

      1. From the food web, what does each of the following need in order to survive:
        1. Berries
        2. Mouse
        3. Snake
      2. In this food web, what will happen if there is not enough:
        1. Sunlight?
        2. Oxygen?
        3. Nutrients in the soil?
      3. What does the carrying capacity (the amount of organisms a particular ecosystem can hold) of frogs in this food web depend on?
      4. Make two food chains from this food web!

      Foot to Height

      FOOT TO HEIGHT

      The bones of the feet can tell a lot about a person. What do feet reveal about a person’s height? Forensic anthropologists team up with law enforcers to help solve crimes.

      Bones of the feet can reveal an interesting fact about an individual. Let’s combine math with forensics to see how.

      1. Create a table.
      2. List the individuals name, height, and foot length.
      3. Have some adults remove their shoes and measure their height.
      4. Measure the length of the adult’s left foot from the wall to the tip of the big toe.
      5. Examine the numbers. Do you see a pattern?
      6. Divide the length of each person’s left foot by his/her height. Multiply the quotient by 100. What do you get? You may also want to use the calculator on a computer for this activity.
      7. The results of your calculations should be about 15, illustrating that the length of a person’s foot is approximately 15 percent of his or her height.
      8. Find out the approximate height of each of your classmates by measuring their foot and charting it on a spreadsheet. Use this proporation for your calculations: 15/100 = Length of Foot/x (person’s height)

      When a forensic scientist has the length of a foot, the forensic scientist will be able to approximate the height of the individual. This works best on a full grown individual for the ratio of body parts is slightly different in growing children.

        Fossils

        All living things are made up of a few main chemical elements, like carbon. When living things die, many different things can happen to them. For instance, they can be broken down by decomposers, eroded by water or wind, or even crushed by other animals. Very rarely, something happens called fossilization, when the carbon inside the now dead organism hardens into what we call a fossil.

        For each of the six boxes, do the following (refer to the time scale):

        1. What era and period do these fossils come from?
        2. What age range are these fossils?
        3. Pick three of the fossils, sketch them and write down the scientific name. For each fossil, find a commonname by looking on the internet, looking through the biology book, or asking someone who has already investigated this fossil.

          Geologic Time Scale

        Founder Effect

        foundereffect

        The founder effect is a way that evolution happens when a new population of organisms comes from a small amount of a previous population. The reason that this matters is that the new population can be founded by organisms that are not representative of the entire population. As you can see above, the descendants of the new population can look very different from the old population.

        1. Why are the descendants of founding population A different from those of founding population B?
        2. What causes the founder effect?
        3. Assume that aliens randomly abducted 10 humans from Earth to start a new colony of humans on a distant planet. What are the chances that their offspring would look like descendants from North America, Asia, Africa, Oceania, Europe or South America? Use the following information to help:
          • Africa: 1200 million people (17%)
          • Asia: 4400 million people (61%)
          • Europe: 743 million people (9%)
          • North America: 361 million people (5%)
          • Oceania (Australia, etc.): 39 million people (0.5%)
          • South & Central America: 630 million people (8%)

        Friction Lab
        1. What is friction?
        2. Explain (in your own words) the two types of friction: static and rolling.
        3. Perform a lab on the following question: Given two objects, which will have more friction with a surface?  You can measure friction in one of the following ways:
          1. Pull the objects with a spring scale and measure how much force is needed to pull each object
          2. Send the objects down an inclined plane and record how much time it takes the object to get to the bottom
          3. Push the objects with the same force along a flat surface and measure how far the objects go
        4. Write down the three objects that you will use and the surface that you will use. What is your hypothesis?
        5. What is the independent variable?
        6. What is the dependent variable?
        7. Perform the experiment, including repeated trials. How many times did you repeat the experiment?
        8. Represent the data in appropriate tables, charts and graphs.
        9. Which object had the most friction? Which object had the least friction? Why?
        10. Was your hypothesis supported? Why or why not?
        11. How could your hypothesis be modified to find out even more information?

        Fuel and Organic Compounds

        Americans love their cars. Most Americans use gasoline-powered cars to commute, run errands, take family vacations, and get places they want to go. Americans consume 25 percent of the world’s oil each year, but the country only provides 2-3 percent of the world’s oil resources, according to the U.S. Department of Energy. As demand for oil grows, car manufacturers and scientists have been looking for alternatives fuels to reduce cost, dependence on international sources of oil, and the amount of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming.

        Today’s typical car releases “greenhouse gases.” Ozone, Nitrogen Oxides, and carbon monoxide are pollutants that come from motorized vehicles when fuel is burned up in internal combustion engines to produce energy to move the car forward. People have been using this type of engine for over 100 years.

        Gasoline is an aliphatic hydrocarbon, which means it is made up of molecules composed of hydrogen and carbon arranged in chains. Gasoline is made from crude oil. The crude oil pumped out of the ground is called petroleum.

        Many new cars have been designed to use alternative fuels to run the engine. Alternative fuels for vehicles are any materials or substances that can be used as a fuel, other than conventional fossil fuels (oil and natural gas). The alternative fuels discussed here today include Ethanol (E85), natural gas (CNG), and biodiesel.

        Gasoline

        The main fuel we use today is gasoline, and is composed of several different hydrocarbons, including octane and benzene. Octane has eight carbons. Benzene has six carbons and is arranged in a ring.

        Ethanol

        Ethanol is an alcohol produced from feed corn that is used to fuel internal combustion engines, either alone or in combination with other fuels. When alcohol fuel (ethanol) is mixed into gasoline, the result is labeled with an ‘E’ followed by the percentage of Ethanol. E10 is commonly found throughout the southern United States and E85 refers to an 85 percent ethanol fuel. To be considered an alternative fuel vehicle (for tax incentives), the car or truck must be able to operate on up to 85 percent ethanol.

        Ethanol has two carbons and an alcohol group.

        CNG

        Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is high-pressure compressed natural gas, mainly composed of methane that is used to fuel normal combustion engines instead of gasoline. Gasoline cars can be retrofitted to compressed natural gas and become natural gas vehicles (NGVs) that use both gasoline and compressed natural gas.

        Methane, the main component of CNG, is made up of one carbon.

        Biodiesel

        Biodiesel is a processed fuel derived from biological sources (such as vegetable oils), which can be used in diesel-engine vehicles. Biodiesel is biodegradable and largely non-toxic. Most cars need to be modified to run on 100 percent biodiesel, but nearly all diesel engine cars can run on a blend of biodiesel without modifications.

        A common component of biodiesel is methanol, which is made up one carbon and one alcohol group.

        Procedure

        1. You will use an organic molecule kit to complete this assignment. You will need three types of atoms: carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Note that carbon makes four bonds, oxygen makes two bonds, and hydrogen makes one bond. Most of the time, one atom will be bonded to another with a single bond, but sometimes you will find that two of those bonding sites are used at the same time in a double bond. An alcohol group is made up of an oxygen bonded to a hydrogen.
        2. When making organic molecules, you will fill in any of the empty bonds with hydrogens. You will start with methane. Build methane, filling in any empty bonds with hydrogen atoms. Make a sketch of what you just built, labeling each atom.
        3. Each bond with a hydrogen atom has energy in it. How many energetic bonds does this methane have?
        4. When methane combines with oxygen and heat, it is burned to form two compounds. One of those compounds contains the carbon atom bonded with oxygen, and the other contains the hydrogen atoms bonded with oxygen. What are these two compounds?
        5. Write out the balanced reaction of the combustion of methane.
        6. For every molecule of natural gas that is burned, what is the contribution of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere?
        7. Repeat steps #2 – 6 for octane, assuming that the carbons are arranged in a chain.
        8. Change octane so that two more carbons are attached to the second carbon in the chain for a total of four carbons attached to the second carbon. Then take the fourth carbon in the chain and attach an extra carbon. Make sure that it still only has eight carbons and repeat steps #2 – 6 for this molecule, isooctane.
        9. Let’s move on to biodiesel. Methanol has an alcohol group, so remember this as you repeat steps #2 – 6.
        10. Moving on to ethanol (another biodiesel), repeat steps #2 – 6 for this fuel.
        11. Finally, consider benzene. Make a chain of six carbons, but then join the last one to the first one. In benzene, each carbon makes a double bond with one other carbon, and makes a single bond to the other carbon. Repeat steps #2 – 6 for this molecule.
        12. Considering the above molecules, which molecule would be the best fuel? Why?
        13. Which molecule would be the worst fuel? Why?
        14. You may have noticed a pattern to the names. Here is the key:
          • Meth- = 1
          • Eth- = 2
          • Prop- = 3
          • But- = 4
          • Pent- = 5
          • Hex- = 6
          • Hept- = 7
          • Oct- = 8
          • Non- = 9
          • Dec- = 10
        15. Write out the chemical structures and formulas for the following compounds:
          1. Propane (used in grills)
          2. Butane (used in lighters)
          3. Hexane (used in laboratories for storage)
          4. Butanol (used as a solvent)
          5. Heptanol (used in perfumes)

        Fuel: The Movie
        1. How much of the world’s oil reserves are located in OPEC countries?
        2. Why is the area that makes gasoline in Louisiana called “Cancer Alley?”
        3. What are the only three ways to dispose of the toxic waste produced by oil refineries?
        4. What is the difference in fuel economy between diesel and gasoline vehicles?
        5. Does biodiesel contribute more to carbon emissions?
        6. What percentage of the world’s population do Americans make up and how much CO2 do Americans produce?
        7. How much of the world’s oil do Americans consume and how much of the world’s oil reserves does America have?
        8. What is “runaway global warming”?
        9. What modifications need to be made to diesel engines in order to run on biodiesel fuel?
        10. What are the levels of toxic diesel fumes inside school buses compared with outside buses?
        11. For every one unit of energy put in to making gasoline, how much energy do you get?
        12. What are the two main biofuels in the US today?
        13. For every unit of energy put in to making biodiesel, how much energy do you get?
        14. What is one way to deal with existing carbon emissions from coal and natural gas power plants?
        15. What is biomass and how could it be used for fuel?
        16. What is marginal land and how could it be used?
        17. How much of America’s electricity could be generated from wind power?
        18. How many turbines would be needed to generate 100% of America’s electricity?
        19. How much solar panel installation would be necessary to generate 100% of America’s electricity needs?
        20. What would be the benefits of plug-in hybrid cars?
        21. What are the advantages of a “vertical farm”?

        Functions
        1. What are the parts of a function?
        2. What is recursion?
        3. What is the keyword “undefined”?
        4. What does “alert” do?
        • Show and explain your answers to Ex 3.1 and 3.2.

        Functions of the Cell

        Cell Wall

        The cell wall is responsible for maintain the shape and structure of the cell. Bacteria often have a chemical called peptidoglycan in their cell wall. The cell wall also is responsible for maintaining the correct balance of water in the cell.

        1. What do you think would happen if there were a large hole in the cell wall?
        2. Peptidoglycan is produced by the ribosomes inside the cell. When this protein reaches the cell wall, what does the cell wall do? [HINT: Does the cell need it or not?]
        3. Suppose that a bacteria in a pond is very dehydrated. What will the cell wall do, and why?

        Cell Membrane

        The cell membrane (or plasma membrane) is referred to as being “selectively permeable,” meaning that it allows some substances to pass through while it prevents other substances from leaving. State whether the cell membrane allows the following materials to pass through and why or why not:

        1. Waste is produced by the ribosomes inside the cell.
        2. The cell wall allows sugar (which contains energy) to reach the cell membrane.
        3. The DNA hits the cell membrane.

        Ribosome

        The ribosomes are small organelles that float around the inside of the cell, looking for DNA. They are made up of two parts, a small and a large part. When they trap the DNA between the two parts, they read the DNA’s code and create proteins. These proteins go on to make up everything in the prokaryotic cell.

        1. Let’s say that there’s a disease which only affects the ribosomes in a prokaryotic cell. What do you think will happen to this cell?
        2. Why is it important that the ribosomes and DNA are both in the same part of the cell?
        3. Can ribosomes leave the cell membrane? Why or why not?

        DNA

        The DNA (or deoxyribonucleic acid) contains all of the genetic information for the cell.

        1. The DNA contains two copies of the cell’s genetic information. When a bacterial cell splits into two cells, what do you think will happen with the DNA?
        2. A new bacterial cell will produce a copy of its own DNA. What is it called when there is an error in the copy? [Hint: You may need to use the biology book for this!]

        The genetic information that is contained by DNA will help to create proteins. What organelle needs to join the DNA in order to create proteins?

        Flagella

        The flagella is a tail-like structure that some prokaryotic cells have in order to help them move.

        1. Most, but not all bacteria have flagella. In what environment is there bacteria that need to have a flagella? Why?
        2. Think about what we’ve learned about natural selection. What advantage does having a flagella give over bacteria that do not have it?
        3. Again, think about what we’ve learned about natural selection. Why do some bacteria not have a flagella? In other words, what advantage does it give to a bacteria to not have a flagella?

        Mitochondria

        The mitochondria of a cell are responsible for producing ATP, which contains the energy that the cell uses. ATP is a molecule that has to be used immediately in order to get the energy from it. In fact, every molecule gets used about three times per minute.

        1. Why do you think that the energy gets used up so quickly?
        2. Where in the human body would you expect to see the highest concentration of mitochondria in cells?
        3. Mitochondria have been found to have their own DNA! Scientists think that means mitochondria were once independent cells that were really good at storing and making usable energy. Since bacteria don’t have mitochondria, but all other kingdoms of life do, then what do you know about mitochondria?

        Chloroplasts

        The chloroplasts of plant cells are able to capture energy from the sun and convert it to usable energy.

        1. As you can see in the above diagram, chloroplasts reflect green light, which makes them appear to be green. What colors of light do they absorb?
        2. Should you try to grow plants under green lights? Why or why not?
        3. Imagine what would happen if our cells had chloroplasts. What would that be like? Describe at least three effects.

        Cytoplasm

        The cytoplasm is the jelly-like substance that takes up space on the inside of the cell. It is mainly composed of salty water and proteins. Organelles move easily through the cytoplasm, and it pushes on the cell membrane like water in a water balloon.

        1. Why, do you think, is the cytoplasm mainly made up of salty water? [Hint: Think of what else is made up of salty water and where the first cells evolved.]
        2. Why is it important that the organelles move easily through the cytoplasm?
        3. What would happen if the cytoplasm did not push on the cell membrane at all?

        Garden Map
        1. Choose from the following plants: Basil, Beans, Bell Peppers, Broccoli, Cabbage, Carrot, Celery, Chili Pepper, Collards, Corn, Lettuce, Marigolds, Mustard, Onion, Oregano, Peas, Potatoes, Pumpkin, Spinach, Squash, Sunflowers, Tomato, Watermelon
        2. You will have about 9 square feet (an area that is 3 feet long and 3 feet wide).  You will need to find out the following information about the plants you want to grow:
          • How much space there should be in between plants
          • How much space there should be in between rows
          • When the plants should be started from seed
          • How long the plants take to grow
        3. I will get you the seeds and the soil.  You will need to determine which and how many of each plant that you want to grow, given the room that you have.  We will start by growing the seeds in the room, then you will help by working the soil outside and doing various chemical tests to see if we need any fertilizer.
        4. Make a map on a 3-foot by 3-foot grid containing all of the plants that you want to grow. Make sure to include appropriate spacing and companion plants.
        5. Determine exactly how many seeds and the optimal conditions for those seeds. Specifically, you should find out the amount of water, planting depth, soil temperature, soil pH, and anything else that is necessary for that particular seed.
        6. Ask for the appropriate materials and start to germinate your seeds!

        Gene Expression

        Teacher Procedure

        Materials

        • 1 white plastic ice cube tray per team, with at least 12 wells
        • 500 mL vinegar
        • 600 mL salt water (600 mL water mixed with 6 Tbsp. salt)
        • 500 mL of water
        • pipettes
        • small self-stick notes
        1. Before class, prepare enough microarrays for the number of teams you will be organizing. The activity is designed for a tray with 16 wells. If needed, you can delete columns 7 and 8 for trays with fewer wells. Columns 1–6 are needed to complete the activity. The microarray models you will be creating work on the basis of an acid, base, and neutral. The solutions you prepare will be simulating the genes that are already on a microarray before a patient’s cDNA is added. To prepare the trays:
          • Use a self-stick note to mark “TL” on the top left and “BR” on the bottom right of each ice cube tray.
          • Put 15 mL of the pure vinegar, salt water solution, or water in the wells (or test tubes) according to the following key for each patient.A = acid—vinegar (will stay clear)B = base—salt water (will turn light pink)

            N = neutral—water (will turn dark pink)

          • Set up an equal number of Patient 1 and Patient 2 microarrays. (The materials list specifies enough materials for up to eight arrays, four of Patient 1 and four of Patient 2.)Patient 1 Profile
            1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
            A A A B B N B N A
            B N A N A B N B N

            Patient 2 Profile

            1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
            A N B N B A B A N
            B A B A B B N B A
        2. Tell students they will by playing the role of oncologists specializing in breast cancer and will be conducting microarray analyses on two newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, Mrs. Jones and Mrs. Brown. Inform students that Mrs. Jones is a 46-year-old African-American woman with no family history of breast cancer and that Mrs. Brown is a 63-year-old Caucasian woman who has had breast cancer on her mother’s side of the family.
        3. Organize students into teams. Assign half the students Patient 1 and the other half Patient 2. Distribute the copies of student handouts to each team. Review the activity with students.
        4. Make sure students understand the flow of DNA to mRNA to protein (see Background and Key Terms above for more information).
        5. Distribute the trays you have prepared to each team, the phenolphthalein, and the pipettes. Have students use the phenolphthalein solution to add three drops to each of the spots on their array. After all the spots have been treated, have students interpret the results using the key on their “Gene Locations on Array” handout. Then have each team record the result for its patient under each gene name on the same handout.
        6. After teams have interpreted their results, have them use their “Cancer Therapy Options” handout to determine which therapies might be indicated for their patients. Point out that if the genes listed in the “Do not use if” category for each therapy are expressed in the manner indicated, then the patient would react badly or not respond to the treatment. Ask students to use this information to determine which treatments are safe to use for each patient. Have them record their answers on the handout.
        7. Discuss students’ results and answers to the questions on the “Checking Up on Genes” student handout. If student DNA microarray results differ, ask students why that might be. (Some reasons include that the substances in the prepared microarray were not distributed evenly or that students may have added different amounts of the substance representing the cDNA.) Ask a representative from a Patient 1 team and a representative from a Patient 2 team to report the treatment choices for each patient. Are they the same? (No.) Ask students why, if both women have breast cancer, the treatments are different. (The two recommendations are different because even though both patients have breast cancer, their gene expression profiles are different, and call for different treatment regimens.)
        8. To illustrate how chemicals in the body can control gene expression, show students the portion of the program at right (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/teachers/video/ht/i-3413-genes-01.html) that describes and animates this process.After students have viewed the video, ask them to describe two ways researchers know how genes can be turned on and off. (Chemical tags, such as methyl groups, can attach directly to DNA and switch genes on or off, or tags can grab onto proteins called histones around which genes are wrapped. Tightening or loosening the histones effectively hides [turns off] or exposes [turns on] the genes.)
        9. As an extension, have students choose two of the genes in the microarray profile and research what cell regulation processes the genes control. Have students report to the class what they learned. Students can find the genes in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene database at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=gene

        Answers: Gene Locations on Array

        Patient 1 Profile

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
        A ESR1
        0
        ABC-C6
        0
        BCL2
        -
        DPYD
        -
        TOP2A
        +
        GSTP1
        -
        CDC2
        +
        GATA3
        0
        B DHFR
        +
        EGFR
        0
        ERB-B2
        +
        ABC-B2
        0
        MT1
        -
        TGFB3
        +
        ANXA
        -
        GRB7
        +

        Patient 2 Profile

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
        A ESR1
        +
        ABC-C6
        -
        BCL2
        +
        DPYD
        -
        TOP2A
        0
        GSTP1
        -
        CDC2
        0
        GATA3
        +
        B DHFR
        0
        EGFR
        -
        ERB-B2
        0
        ABC-B2
        -
        MT1
        -
        TGFB3
        +
        ANXA
        -
        GRB7
        0

        Key: + = overexpressed (dark pink) || – = underexpressed (light pink) || 0 = normal (clear)

        Cancer Therapy Worksheet

        Cyclophosphamide: Patient 1: yes; Patient 2: yes
        Doxorubicin: Patient 1: yes; Patient 2: yes
        Fluorouracil (5-FU): Patient 1: yes; Patient 2: no
        Methotrexate: Patient 1: no; Patient 2: no
        Paclitaxel: Patient 1: no; Patient 2: no
        Tamoxifen: Patient 1: no; Patient 2: yes
        Trastuzumab: Patient 1: yes; Patient 2: no

        Student Handout Questions

        1. Which treatment or treatments would you recommend for your patient?Patient 1: a combination of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, fluorouracil, and trastuzumab. Patient 2: a combination of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and tamoxifen.
        2. Some genes, such as ERB-B2 and ESR1, have been found to be associated with particular diseases or conditions such as cancer. Other genes, such as the ABC-B2 gene, are not associated with a disease but are involved in resistance to certain drugs or treatments. Why would it be useful to test for the expression of genes like the ABC-B2 gene on a microarray? If the gene is strongly expressed, it would mean that a particular treatment might not work, or might even be harmful to the person taking that drug.

        Student Procedure

        Activity Summary
        Students model how scientists use DNA microarrays to determine levels of gene expression in breast cancer patients, and then choose treatments based on what they learn.

        Materials

        • 15 mL of phenolphthalein
        • pipettes

        Background

        Normal-functioning DNA codes for proteins through the processes of transcription and translation. During transcription, one strand of DNA in a cell’s nucleus is used to synthesize a strand of mRNA. After the mRNA is produced, it moves into the cell’s cytoplasm. During translation, transfer RNA (tRNA) and the cell’s ribosome work together to create a protein by building a series of amino acid sequences specified by the nucleotides in the mRNA. (The tRNA transports the amino acids while the ribosome synthesizes them into proteins.) Proteins are involved in nearly every aspect of the physiology and biochemistry of living organisms.

        Transcription diagram

        If a DNA molecule mutates, it may produce faulty proteins. If these proteins are involved in controlling the processes of cell growth and division, the mutation could trigger a cell to become abnormal and divide uncontrollably. For many years, this was the only mechanism known to cause cancer. Treatment of this type of cancer mainly relied on trying to destroy the mutated cells.

        But researchers have now discovered that cancer can be triggered by epigenetic changes—modifications to mechanisms associated with DNA that alter gene expression without mutating the original DNA. These changes are like switches turning genes on and off. Some epigenetic effects turn on, or activate, genes that stimulate tumor growth; other effects turn off, or silence, genes that would normally suppress tumor growth. Since epigenetic changes do not alter the DNA sequence itself, they hold the promise of being chemically reversed with drug (and potentially nutritional) therapies.

        Cancer may be caused by several different mutations or epigenetic changes that cause genes to be expressed (turned on) and/or silenced (turned off) when they should not be. By identifying which genes in the cancer cells are working abnormally, doctors can better diagnose and treat cancer.

        One way scientists try to determine which genes are working abnormally is to use a DNA microarray (see “How DNA Microarrays Work” student handout for a complete description of how these arrays function). These gene-expression “fingerprints” allow a doctor to determine both the genes involved in a patient’s cancer and the possible reaction of each patient to different drug treatments. This activity models how doctors use microarrays to determine levels of gene expression in breast cancer patients and then choose treatments based on what they learn.

        Key Terms

        • complementary DNA (cDNA): A single strand of DNA synthesized in the lab to complement the bases in a given strand of messenger RNA. Complementary DNA represents the parts of a gene that are expressed in a cell to produce a protein.
        • DNA microarray: A collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface, such as glass, plastic, or silicon chip, forming an array. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure gene expression levels.
        • gene expression: The process by which the information encoded in DNA is converted into a final gene product (i.e., a protein or any of several types of RNA)

        Checking Up on Genes

        You are oncologists specializing in breast cancer and will be conducting a microarray analysis on one of two newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, Mrs. Jones and Mrs. Brown. You will be adding a solution to each spot on the array that represents the complementary DNA (cDNA) of your patient to determine her gene expression profile. After you complete your microanalysis, you will decide on her course of treatment.

        How DNA Microarrays Work

        In each type of cell, like a muscle cell or a skin cell, different genes are expressed (turned on) or silenced (turned off). If the cells that are turned on mutate, they could—depending on what role they play in the cell—trigger the cell to become abnormal and divide uncontrollably, causing cancer.

        By identifying which genes in the cancer cells are working abnormally, doctors can better diagnose and treat cancer. One way they do this is to use a DNA microarray to determine the expression levels of genes. When a gene is expressed in a cell, it generates messenger RNA (mRNA). Overexpressed genes generate more mRNA than underexpressed genes. This can be detected on the microarray.

        The first step in using a microarray is to collect healthy and cancerous tissue samples from the patient. This way, doctors can look at what genes are turned on and off in the healthy cells compared to the cancerous cells. Once the tissues samples are obtained, the messenger RNA (mRNA) is isolated from the samples. The mRNA is color-coded with fluorescent tags and used to make a DNA copy (the mRNA from the healthy cells is dyed green; the mRNA from the abnormal cells is dyed red.)

        The DNA copy that is made, called complementary DNA (cDNA), is then applied to the microarray. The cDNA binds to complementary base pairs in each of the spots on the array, a process known as hybridization. Based on how the DNA binds together, each spot will appear red, green, or yellow (a combination of red and green) when scanned with a laser.

        • A red spot indicates that that gene was strongly expressed in cancer cells. (In your experiment these spots will be dark pink.)
        • A green spot indicates that that gene was strongly repressed in cancer cells. (In your experiment these spots will be light pink.)
        • If a spot turns yellow, it means that that gene was neither strongly expressed nor strongly repressed in cancer cells. (In your experiment these spots will be clear.)
        • A black spot indicates that none of the patient’s cDNA has bonded to the DNA in the gene located in that spot. This indicates that the gene is inactive. (All of the genes in your experiment are active.)

        Microarray diagram

        Gene Locations on Array

        The following charts show which genes are represented by each spot on your array. Use the key on this page to determine the expression level of each gene for your patient. Then record whether each gene was strongly expressed (+), strongly repressed (-), or neither strongly expressed nor repressed (0) underneath the name of each gene.

        Patient 1 Profile

          1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
        A ESR1 ABC-C6 BCL2 DPYD TOP2A GSTP1 CDC2 GATA3
        B DHFR EGFR ERB-B2 ABC-B2 MT1 TGFB3 ANXA GRB7

        Patient 2 Profile

          1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
        A ESR1 ABC-C6 BCL2 DPYD TOP2A GSTP1 CDC2 GATA3
        B DHFR EGFR ERB-B2 ABC-B2 MT1 TGFB3 ANXA GRB7

        Key+ = overexpressed (dark pink) || – = underexpressed (light pink) || 0 = normal (clear)

        Cancer Therapy Options

        Cyclophosphamide

        Brand Names: Cytoxan, Neosar

        What it is: chemotherapy drug

        How it works: Cyclophosphamide acts by transferring one or more saturated carbon atoms to cellular macromolecules. This damages the cancer cell DNA, and slows or stops the growth of the cancer cells.

        Do not use if one or more is true:

        ABC-B2 = +
        GSTP1 = +
        MT1 = +

        Safe to use for:

        Patient 1    yes    no

        Patient 2    yes    no

        Doxorubicin

        Brand Names: Adriamycin, Rubex

        What it is: chemotherapy drug

        How it works: Doxorubicin inhibits RNA synthesis and causes DNA strand breakage. This slows or stops the growth of the cancer cells.

        Do not use if one or more is true:

        EGFR = +
        ABC-C6 = +

        Safe to use for:

        Patient 1    yes    no

        Patient 2    yes    no

        Fluorouracil (5-FU)

        Brand Name: Adrucil

        What it is: chemotherapy drug

        How it works: Fluorouracil binds with and deactivates a key enzyme (thymidylate synthetase) in thymidine biosynthesis. This slows or stops the growth of the cancer cells.

        Do not use if one or more is true:

        EGFR = +
        BCL2 = +
        DPYD = +

        Safe to use for:

        Patient 1    yes    no

        Patient 2    yes    no

        Methotrexate

        Brand Names: Mexate, Folex

        What it is: chemotherapy drug

        How it works: Methotrexate binds to and inactivates the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), and inhibits the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine. This prevents the growth of cancer cells.

        Do not use if one or more is true:

        BCL2 = +
        DHFR = +

        Safe to use for:

        Patient 1    yes    no

        Patient 2    yes    no

        Paclitaxel

        Brand Name: Taxol

        What it is: chemotherapy drug

        How it works: Paclitaxel binds to tubulin and blocks cell division. This slows or stops the growth of cancer cells.

        Do not use if one or more is true:

        BCL2 = +
        ERB-B2 = +

        Safe to use for:

        Patient 1    yes    no

        Patient 2    yes    no

        Tamoxifen

        Brand Name: Nolvadex

        What it is: hormone (antiestrogen)

        How it works: Tamoxifen binds to the estrogen receptor, preventing cell growth. It also affects the cycling of the cell in the natural cell cycle.

        Do not use if one or more is true:

        ESR1 = 0 or ‑
        ERB-B2 = +

        Safe to use for:

        Patient 1    yes    no

        Patient 2    yes    no

        Trastuzumab

        Brand Name: Herceptin

        What it is: monoclonal antibody

        How it works: Herceptin binds to the ERB-B2 growth factor receptor and prevents the cell from dividing.

        Do not use if one or more is true:

        ERB-B2 = 0 or –

        Safe to use for:

        Patient 1    yes    no

        Patient 2    yes    no

        Safety Note
        If you spill any of the phenolphthalein on your skin, immediately rinse it off thoroughly with water. After completion of the activity, rinse the tubes and droppers with a weak acid, such as vinegar.

        Procedure

        1. The plastic grid your teacher will give you represents the microarray for your patient. Each spot represents one gene. The solution represents the cDNA of a cancer patient. Using the solution your teacher has given you, use a pipette to add three drops in each spot on the microarray for your patient.
        2. Once all the spots have been treated, use the key under “Gene Locations on Array” to interpret your results. Then record the result for your patient under each gene name on the same handout.
        3. After you have interpreted the results, use “Cancer Therapy Options“, which describes several treatments for breast cancer. Use the results of your microarray analysis to determine which therapies might be indicated for your patient.
        4. Which treatment or treatments would you recommend for your patient?
        5. Some genes, such as ERB-B2 and ESR1, have been found to be associated with particular diseases or conditions such as cancer. Other genes, such as the ABC-B2 gene, are not associated with a disease but are involved in resistance to certain drugs or treatments. Why would it be useful to test for the expressions of genes like the ABC-B2 gene on a microarray?

        Gene Frequency

        In this activity, you will be reproducing bacteria in a biome of your choice. You will figure out which bacteria survive and which die depending on the environment that you choose. Finally, you will calculate the gene frequencies and see if they changed from the beginning to the end. Below, you will find a table which shows the three genes, and the descriptions of their alleles (“D” means dominant, “R” means recessive).

        Gene Allele Description of the Allele
        1stGene:Temperature Dom. Able to withstand temperatures below 0°C
        Rec. Able to withstand temperatures above 100°C
        2nd Gene: Water D Can survive under water
        R Cannot survive under water, but can survive in ice
        3rd Gene: Sunlight D Uses sunlight for energy
        R Doesn’t use sunlight for energy, but requires very little food

        You will start with a total of 10 bacteria that all have this gene. Some bacteria are dominant for some genes and recessive for others. In the table below, I have started you off by telling you which alleles (Dominant or Recessive) each bacteria (A - J) will have for each gene.

        P1 Generation Bacteria Name
        A B C D E F G H I J
        1st Gene: Temperature Dom. D D D R R R R D D
        2ndGene:Water Rec. D D R D D R R D D
        3rdGene:Sunlight Dom. R D R D R D R D R
        1. Is bacteria #1 dominant or recessive for the 1st gene? Is bacteria #6 dominant or recessive for the third gene?
        2. Choose a biome for these bacteria and write it down.
        3. Right now, calculate the initial gene frequency for each dominant and recessive allele and record it in the chart below. The first gene has been calculated for you: 6 out of the 10 bacteria are dominant for the first gene, so the gene frequency is 60% dominant and 40% recessive.
        Gene Allele Initial Gene Frequency
        1stGene:Temperature D 60%
        R 40%
        2nd Gene: Water D
        R
        3rd Gene: Sunlight D
        R

        You are going to simulate evolution by deciding which 5 bacteria in the P1 generation survive to the F1 generation. Once you decide which five will survive, you will then reproduce each bacteria to make a total of 10 bacteria in the next generation. For example, if you choose that bacteria A, D, E, I and J should survive to the F1, then you will have:

        F1 Generation Bacteria Name
        A A D D E E I I J J
        1st Gene: Temperature D D D D R R D D D D
        2ndGene:Water D D R R D D D D D D
        3rdGene:Sunlight D D R R D D D D R R
        1. Go ahead and make the F1 generation. For each bacteria that you selected, why did you pick it? Fill in the table below with your choices.
        F1 Generation Bacteria Name
        1st Gene: Temperature
        2ndGene:Water
        3rdGene:Sunlight
        1. Make the F2 generation by taking 5 of the above bacteria and making copies of each one.
        F2 Generation Bacteria Name
        1st Gene: Temperature
        2ndGene:Water
        3rdGene:Sunlight
        1. Make the F3 generation by taking 5 of the above bacteria and making copies of each one.
        F3 Generation Bacteria Name
        1st Gene: Temperature
        2ndGene:Water
        3rdGene:Sunlight
        1. Calculate the final gene frequencies:
          Gene Allele Final Gene Frequency
          1stGene:Temperature D
          R
          2nd Gene: Water D
          R
          3rd Gene: Sunlight D
          R
        2. Compare the initial and final gene frequencies:
          1. Which allele made the biggest jump in frequency from the P1 generation to the F3 generation?
          2. Did evolution happen? Why or why not? Use the definition of evolution in your response.
          3. Was this an example of directional selection? Why or why not?
          4. Choose another biome. Which bacteria do you think would have done the best in this new biome?

        Genetically Modified Crops in the United States

        Crops with genetically modified (GM) traits were first introduced in 1996. Some varieties of soybean, cotton, and corn have been modified to survive the use of herbicides. Some varieties of cotton and corn have been modified to be more resistant to insect pests. The graph shows data on the use of different modified crops in the United States between 1996 and 2007. In the legend, “HT” stands for herbicide tolerance, and “Bt” stands for insect resistance.

        gmcrops

        Analyze and Conclude

        1. Which two GM crops were widely and rapidly adopted by U.S. farmers? Which crop had only a slight increase?
        2. Compare the percentage of soybeans that had the HT trait in 1996 to the percentage in 2007.
        3. Compare the percentage of corn that had the HT trait in 1996 to the percentage in 2007.
        4. Add up the percentages of acres of GM cotton crops in 2007. Explain your result.
        5. Do you think that the percentages of HT soybeans and HT corn will continue to rise over the next several years? Use the graph to support your prediction.

        Build Science Skills

        Why is it important for farmers to have plants that are modified to contain an HT trait, a Bt trait, or both traits? How do these traits help crop yields?

        Genetics of Pill Bugs

        Background

        The pill bug (woodlice, rolly-polly, or potato bug; scientific name Armadillidium vulgare) is very common to find in the soil, underneath logs, and hidden under leaves. Since they are so common, it’s easy to overlook that they actually have many different colors: green, brown, grey, cream, orange and red. If you count the numbers of pill bugs that represent each color, it’s possible to determine which colors are genetically dominant and which colors are genetically recessive and how these might be related.
        Birds, amphibians, and reptiles eat pill bugs. In fact, they are food for almost everything that finds it. Why would the pill bug have such a wide variety of colors?
        Remember, dominant traits are traits that are always seen when the organism has it; you only see recessive traits when an organism has two copies of that trait in its DNA. Why would some traits be dominant and some be recessive?

        Materials

        • Hand Lens
        • 50 pill bugs
        • Pencil
        • Paper
        • 6 containers

        Methods

        1. Sort the pill bugs into the containers by color, maintaining a tally for each bug that you place into the correct container.
        2. Calculate the percentage of each color bug that you found (if you have 50 total bugs, it’s easy: multiply each number by 2).
        3. Create a data table with the following columns: Color, number, and percentage. Include your group’s data.
        4. Create a second data table with the same columns, but include the class data.
        5. Replace the pill bugs into the habitat!

        Analysis

        1. Answer the questions from the background.
        2. Which would you suppose is the dominant trait(s)?
        3. Which would you suppose is the recessive trait(s)?
        4. What would happen if you crossed pill bugs that both had recessive traits?

        Geographic Separation

        Geographic Separation

        The diagram shows how “greenish warblers” (a type of bird) started in the Himalayas, but, over thousands of years, migrated to Siberia by two different paths, one through China and one through Kazakhstan. Due to changes in the warblers over those thousands of years, this geographic separation made it impossible for the two types of warbles to breed with each other when they met again in Siberia.

        1. Can the populations in squares “A” and “B” interbreed? What about “A” and “F”? “D” and “E”? Why?
        2. What causes geographic separation to create different species?
        3. Let’s say that in an experiment, scientists brought birds from populations D, E and H together. Assume that each population is a different color. Draw what this looks like if there are four birds of each population and each bird has one offspring. Think about which populations will breed with each other and which won’t!

        Go Bony Fish

        Use a computer or book to help answer #1 – 8:

        1. How is a tissue related to a cell?
        2. How is an organ related to a tissue?
        3. What is the relationship between cells, tissues and organs? Create a diagram to demonstrate.
        4. What does it mean that something has symmetry?
        5. What kinds of organisms have radial body symmetry? Make a sketch of radial body symmetry.
        6. What kinds of organisms have bilateral body symmetry? Make a sketch of bilateral body symmetry.
        7. We’ve spoke about insect body segmentation. What are the three main body segments of an insect?
        8. Cephalization is the presence of a brain. Which types of organisms have cephalization?
        9. In a group, make a deck of 31 playing cards if one has not been made already that you can use. Cut 16 index cards in half. Label each card with information from the Body Plans chart:
          • Names of each animal phylum with a quick sketch (9 cards):
            • Sponges
            • Cnidarians
            • Arthropods
            • Roundworms
            • Flatworms
            • Annelids
            • Mollusks
            • Echinoderms
            • Chordates
          • Examples of the seven body plan features (22 total):
            • No organs
            • Specialized cells, tissues, and organs (3 of these)
            • No body symmetry
            • Radial body symmetry
            • Bilateral body symmetry (3 of these)
            • No body segmentation (3 of these)
            • Body segmentation present (3 of these)
            • Cephalization present (4 of these)
            • No cephalization (2 of these)
        10. When playing, deal out four cards to each group member. Take turns removing a card from the top of the deck and then returning the card from your pile to the bottom of the deck. Students win by matching up four cards that include the name of an animal phylum and three features that correctly describe that phylum’s body plan (e.g., having the Sponges card with  No organsNo body symmetry and No cephalization). Try it once using the chart and then play without using the chart. Extra credit to the winners!

        Body Plan Chart:

        BodyPlans

        Graphing Opinions
        1. Using the class’ responses from the 15 true/false questions at the beginning of this chapter, create a tally of how many people got the right answer for each question.
        2. Calculate the percentage of students who were correct for each question and place that number next to the tally.
        3. Create a line or bar graph that represents the percentages that you just calculated.
        4. Which question(s) were most correctly responded? Why?
        5. Which question(s) were least correctly responded? Why?

        Hair & Fiber Lab

         

        Hair Evidence Lab
        A. Pull out a strand of your hair and examine it with a hand lens. You may need to put it on a piece of white or
        black paper to make it easier to see.
        What does the root look like? Choose one.
        Teardrop
        Narrow
        Rounded
        Pointed
        Other: _______________________
        What does the tip look like? Choose one.
        Frayed
        Smooth
        Bent
        Split
        Other: _______________________
        What color is it? _______________
        Is the color the same everywhere along the shaft? ________________________
        B. Place your hair on a slide and view the shaft at low, medium, and high power. Draw the three sketches.
        C. Place your hair on a slide and view the root at low, medium, and high power. Draw the three sketches.
        D. Locate the three primary structures of your hair and choose the best description for each feature.
        Cuticle Scales
        • Flat and smooth
        • Protruding or spiky
        • Other: ___________________
        Cortex Thickness
        • Thick
        • Thin
        Cortex Color
        • Same color throughout
        • Different colors – Explain: ____________________
        Medulla Style
        • Broken
        • Continuous
        Medulla Thickness
        • Thick
        • Thin
        Medulla Transparency
        • Transparent
        • Semi-transparent
        • Opaque
        E. Compare your hair sample to one from a classmate. How is it similar? How is it different?
        F. Examine at least four animal hairs provided by your teacher. Draw a sketch of the hair at 100X magnification and write down any unique characteristics you observe that help you tell the hairs apart.
        G. Write a paragraph that compares the human and animal hair samples you examined. What differences did you notice? What characteristics could you use to identify the hair samples?

        Hardy-Weinberg Lab

        Background

        A population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium when evolution is not actively occurring in that population. We say that Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium happens when there are seven conditions that are met:

        1. Mutation is not occurring
        2. Natural selection is not occurring
        3. The population is infinitely large
        4. All members of the population breed
        5. All mating is totally random
        6. Everyone produces the same number of offspring
        7. There is no migration in or out of the population

        This equilibrium is calculated by using the formula p2 + 2pq + q2 .

        Procedures for an “Ideal” Population

        1. Everyone in the classroom will start as a heterozygote. You will receive one dominant allele and one recessive allele. Find a partner at random.
        2. Randomly choose one of your alleles and combine it with your partner’s allele. Write down the genotype of this produced offspring.
        3. Return your alleles, then repeat step #2.
        4. Now that you have two offspring, you and your partner will become those two offspring. Decide which of you will become which offspring. If you need a new allele in order to represent your new genotype, trade what you don’t need with the teacher.
        5. Find a new partner at random in the class. Repeat steps #2 – 4 four more times with different partners so you have a total of five generations.
        6. Combine your data with the remainder of the class and fill out Tables 1 & 2.
        7. Complete Table 3 with the equilibrium values. Fill out the second row with an ideal version of what should happen. Basically, you need to figure out what would happen if 25% of the individuals were AA, 50% were Aa and 25% were aa.
        8. Do the class results for the p and q values of the 5th generation agree with the predicted values?
        9. What does this mean about the population?
        10. Which one of the assumptions (from the introduction) is not followed?

        Table 1

        Parental 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
        My Genotype

        Table 2

        Generation # AA Aa aa Allele A Allele a Total Alleles
        Parental
        1st
        2nd
        3rd
        4th
        5th

        Table 3

        Generation # Frequency of AA Frequency of Aa Frequency of aa Frequency of A Frequency of a
        Parental
        Theoretical Results in 5th generation
        Actual Results in 5th generation

        Procedures for Selection Pressure

        1. You will now repeat the previous experiment, except with one major difference. If you produce an offspring that is homozygous recessive, it immediately dies. You must replace it with a new offspring in order to continue.
        2. Combine your data with the remainder of the class and fill out Tables 4 & 5.
        3. Complete Table 6 with the equilibrium values. Fill out the second row with an ideal version of what should happen. Basically, you need to figure out what would happen if 25% of the individuals were AA, 50% were Aa and 25% were aa.
        4. Do the class results for the p and q values of the 5th generation agree with the predicted values?
        5. What does this mean about the population?
        6. Predict what might happen to these frequencies if you simulated for another five generations.
        7. Since homozygous recessives are strongly selected against, would you expect the recessive allele to be completely removed from the population?

        Table 4

        Parental 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
        My Genotype

        Table 5

        Generation # AA Aa aa Allele A Allele a Total Alleles
        Parental
        1st
        2nd
        3rd
        4th
        5th

        Table 6

        Generation # Frequency of AA Frequency of Aa Frequency of aa Frequency of A Frequency of a
        Parental
        Theoretical Results in 5th generation
        Actual Results in 5th generation

        Procedures for Heterozygous Advantage

        1. You will now repeat the previous experiment, except with one major difference. If you produce an offspring that is homozygous recessive, it immediately dies and if you produce an offspring that is homozygous dominant, you flip a coin to determine if it survives or dies. If the offspring dies, you must replace it with a new offspring in order to continue.
        2. Combine your data with the remainder of the class and fill out Tables 7 & 8.
        3. Complete Table 9 with the equilibrium values. Fill out the second row with an ideal version of what should happen. Basically, you need to figure out what would happen if 25% of the individuals were AA, 50% were Aa and 25% were aa.
        4. Do the class results for the p and q values of the 5th generation agree with the predicted values?
        5. What does this mean about the population?
        6. Compare this case to the first two. Explain how the changes in frequencies show evolution to be occurring.
        7. Do you think the recessive allele will be eliminated? Why or why not.

        Table 7

        Parental 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
        My Genotype

        Table 8

        Generation # AA Aa aa Allele A Allele a Total Alleles
        Parental
        1st
        2nd
        3rd
        4th
        5th

        Table 9

        Generation # Frequency of AA Frequency of Aa Frequency of aa Frequency of A Frequency of a
        Parental
        Theoretical Results in 5th generation
        Actual Results in 5th generation

        Procedures for Genetic Drift

        1. You will now repeat the first experiment (“ideal”), except with two major differences. Now you will be placed in small groups of 3 – 4 students and you must mate within those groups. You will also do this for 10 generations instead of 5.
        2. Combine your data with the remainder of your group and fill out Tables 10 & 11.
        3. Complete Table 12 with the equilibrium values. Fill out the second row with an ideal version of what should happen. Basically, you need to figure out what would happen if 25% of the individuals were AA, 50% were Aa and 25% were aa.
        4. Do the class results for the p and q values of the 5th generation agree with the predicted values?
        5. What does this mean about the population?
        6. Compare your results with other groups. Did genetic drift happen in other groups? Did it happen in the same way?
        7. What is the relationship between group size and genetic drift?

        Table 10

        Parental 2nd 4th 6th 8th 10th
        My Genotype

        Table 11

        Generation # AA Aa aa Allele A Allele a Total Alleles
        Parental
        2nd
        4th
        6th
        8th
        10th

        Table 12

        Generation # Frequency of AA Frequency of Aa Frequency of aa Frequency of A Frequency of a
        Parental
        Theoretical Results in 10th generation
        Actual Results in 10th generation

        Heart Rate Lab

        by Dr. Ingrid Waldron

        For this activity, after you learn how to measure heart rate accurately, your group will design an experiment to test how a stimulus or activity affects heart rate. During the next laboratory period, you will carry out your experiment, analyze your data, and prepare a poster describing your experiment.

        Heart Diagram

        1. Why do you need to have a heart? Why do you need to have blood circulate to all the parts of your body?
        2. How does your heart pump blood? What is a heart beat?
        3. Does your heart always beat at the same rate?
        4. List 5 activities or stimuli that you think may increase a person’s heart rate. An activity is something a person does, and a stimulus is an input from the environment around a person.
        5. Why would it be useful for the heart to beat faster during these activities or in response to these stimuli?
        6. Are there any activities or stimuli that you think may decrease a person’s heart rate?

        Each time the heart beats, blood is pumped into the arteries. As the blood surges into the arteries during a heart beat, each artery stretches and bulges. This brief bulge of the artery is called a pulse. You will be measuring heart rate by counting the number of pulses in the artery in the wrist in a 30 second interval. To measure heart rate, count the number of pulses in 30 seconds. Multiply that number by 2, and you will have the number of heart beats per minute.

        1. Choose one person in your group to be the subject, one person to measure the pulse count in the left arm, and one person to measure the pulse count in the right arm. The fourth person in the group will use the stop watch to time a 30 second interval, and will indicate when the count of beats should begin and end.
        2. Both people who are measuring pulse count should write down the number of beats for the 30 second interval before saying the number out loud. What is the pulse count for 30 seconds?
        Group Member 30 second pulse count Beats per minute(Equal to 30 second pulse count times 2)
        Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3
        bpm
        bpm
        bpm
        1. Compare the results found by the two different people who were measuring pulse counts. Did you both count about the same number of pulses in the 30 second interval? If you got different results, why?
        2. Try to improve your technique, and repeat step 8 until both people who are measuring pulse counts get the same number of pulses in the 30 second interval (or within 1 or 2 of the same number). Once you have accurate readings, use the final, accurate set of measurements to calculate the heart rate for this subject (beats per minute). What is the heart rate?
        3. After this, you should switch roles. The people who were measuring pulse counts should now be the subject and the timer, and the people who were the subject and the timer should now measure pulse counts. Repeat steps 8 and 9 until the heart rate measurements are accurate.

        Discuss how you could test your ideas concerning activities or stimuli which may increase or decrease heart rate. Choose a hypothesis that your group would like to test in your next lab class.

        1. Write your hypothesis down.

        Plan your experimental procedure. You should keep everything in your experiment the same except for the one thing that you are testing for. When you write down your procedures, remember that the heart rate can be affected by even minor physical activity like changing seats, so you need to keep even this activity the same in order to test the effect of your stimulus or activity. Plan to have each person in the group be a subject in the experiment, in order to see whether different people have the same heart rate response to your stimulus or activity.

        1. Write down the procedure for your experiment. Include:
          1. What you plan to do to your subjects
          2. What the activity is
          3. When you will measure heart rate
          4. How often you will measure heart rate (e.g., 2 or 3 times before the activity, during the activity, after the activity)
        2. Make a data sheet to collect the data during your experiment next time. The data sheet should include places to record the:
          1. Names of each student in the group
          2. Resting heart rates for each subject before the stimulus or activity
          3. The heart rates during and/or after the stimulus or activity
          4. Anything you notice which might affect the results (e.g., other things which may be happening in the room during your experiment or changes in each subject’s mood during the experiment)
        3. Review your experimental plan from last time, and carry out the experiment for each subject in your group. Record your data in your data sheets.
        4. For each subject, calculate the difference between the resting heart rate and the heart rate during or after the stimulus or activity. Make a table which shows these change in heart rate values. Calculate the average change in heart rate for all subjects in the experiment, and record this average in the table.
        5. Do your results support your hypothesis? What conclusions can you draw from your experiment?

        Heat
        1. Define:
          1. Heat
          2. Temperature
          3. Thermometer
        2. Complete:

        Fahrenheit – F Celsius – C Description
        Water freezes
        100
        98.6
        72 Room temperature
        Temperature at the top of the room
        Temperature at eye level in the room
        Temperature of room temperature water

        Hide a Butterfly

        From Jennifer Weiss

        1. Get three butterflies and colored pencils.
        2. Your objective is to color the butterflies in such a way that they will not be eaten by birds (played by other students or faculty members). Observe places in the room that might make an excellent hiding place. Play close attention to borders, corners, places where there are many colors all in the same location, and rarely-used spaces. Keep in mind that your butterfly must be visible, even if it’s hard to see.
        3. Color your butterflies and tape it in the appropriate place.
        4. Before the “bird” finds butterflies, respond:
          1. What were the places you found?
          2. Why did you choose these places?
          3. What sorts of adaptations do real butterflies make in order to not be seen?
        5. Once the “bird” finds butterflies, respond:
          1. How many of your butterflies did the bird find?
          2. Why did they find the ones they found, and why did they not find the ones they didn’t find?
          3. What did you learn about hiding butterflies in the room?

        History of Agriculture

        In your group of three, choose one of the following time periods.  You will put together a chart and present it to the other group members (below).  You will select three “Big ideas” from your time period, and for each big idea, select three pieces of supporting evidence for that big idea.  Keep in mind you will be looking for general trends in what happened in agriculture during those time periods.

        Big Idea:
        Supporting Evidence #1:
        Supporting Evidence #2:
        Supporting Evidence #3:

        oats

        “The most essential challenge for humanity is to learn to eat from nature’s bounty without destroying it in the process, to find our appropriate niche within nature.”

        ~ Judith Soule and Jon Piper

        Crop rotation can be traced all the way back to the ancient Roman, African, and Asian cultures. It has evolved alongside the progress of agriculture since the first domestication of plants. The benefits of such rotation were realized early and utilized to their full potential. Even in Europe during the Middle Ages farmers followed a three-year rotation pattern, planting rye or winter wheat during the first year, followed by spring oats or barley in the second year, and then no crops were grown in the third year. Later in the eighteenth century, British agriculturist Charles Townshend developed a four-year crop rotation of wheat, barley, turnips, and clover that aided the European agricultural revolution (Bellis 2005). This rotation has implications in the United States as well seeing as Europeans brought many of their domesticated plants and animals with them when they came to the New World.

        Settlement of America combined native plant and animal species with ones brought over from Europe and other world regions creating a new set of agricultural conditions. In the beginning the conditions of colonizing made subsistence farming the main form of agriculture. It was not until the frontier opened up and the idea of Manifest Destiny hit that American agriculture began down its own pathway of revolution.

        For my analysis I have broken down the history of American agriculture into three sections. I determined the breaks based on two significant turning points in the practice of agriculture, which had repercussions throughout the entire nation and world. The first break occurs in 1850 when the commercial corn and wheat belts began to form illustrating the initiation of what has become our current form of industrial agriculture. The second break at 1940 displays how technology and machinery shifted our system toward more industrial farm operations. Through analysis of our historical patterns the road to our current farming practices becomes clearly established.

        Wheat Farm Aitkin County, MN

        Photo courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society

        1830s-1840s – Mechanical corn shellers are introduced

        1831 – Cyrus H. McCormick developed the first commercially successful reaper, a horse-drawn machine that harvested wheat
        1837 – John Deere invented the first cast steel plow
        1842 – Joseph Dart invented the grain elevator
        1849 – Minnesota was established as a territory

        1850 – Edmund Quincy invented the corn picker, commercial corn and wheat belts began to develop, wheat occupied the newer and cheaper land west of the corn areas and was constantly being forced westward by rising land values and the encroachment of the corn areas, alfalfa was being grown on the west coast, successful farming on the prairies began

        With the onset of new machinery and farming practices, many of the old traditions of farming, including the culture that surrounded these activities, were left behind. Gene Logsdon shares a story illustrating the community and rituals that also were lost when traditional agricultural practices were replaced with more industrial farming techniques.

        “Before the industrial revolution, corn shocks were hauled in good weather to the barn, and then in harsh winter, the young people went from farm to farm in the evenings making a party out of the husking. The person who husked a red ear – and there were many red ears in the days before standardized hybrid corn – got to kiss his or her sweetheart. This was the cultural, even cultured, way of making work pleasant. It was replaced by a farmer husking corn alone in a cold December field, day after day – a misery, one he was driven to when technology made communal work impossible and obsolete, and when traditional social rituals had lost their significance (2000).

        Such enriching community experiences were replaced with more hectic and expensive lifestyles for the farmers and their families. In turn, these farmers were later replaced with more industrial agribusinesses that could shoulder the burden of mass food production. Our society has lost the local knowledge and community spirit that went hand in hand with traditional farming practices before the rise of commercial monocropping. The loss of human community parallels the weakening in the relationship between farmer and land as well.

        Wendell Berry states that the commercial version of agriculture explains to both farmer and consumer that “private knowledge, judgment, and effort can be satisfactorily replaced by generalized, expensive technological solutions (Jackson, Berry, and Colman 1984).” This idea really begins to show in the 1850s as crop rotation methods, whose benefits have been known since ancient times, are being replaced with commercial monocropping. The fact that the wheat belt slowly is pushed aside and taken over by the corn belt proves that general mass production is the encroaching goal encouraged by society, especially since corn is harder on the soil than wheat. In addition, these new heavy steel plows cause soil compaction problems. This new machinery is heavier than the old wood and animal contraptions of traditional farming and reduces water penetration and air supply to root systems, which in turn decreases crop yields. After such intense soil compaction the time it takes to irrigate that soil doubles and triples in length speeding the soil towards an unfertile future (Jackson, Berry, and Colman 1984).

        In Minnesota small farmers trying to make a living in the harsh Midwest environment were still practicing crop rotation late into the 1800s. Through the journals of Oliver Kelley we know that he raised corn, oats, wheat, hay, sorghum, and vegetables on his farm in addition to raising different kinds of livestock. Around 1874 Mary Carpent describes the layout of her farm in a letter: “The land here is rich and productive. We have in four acres broomcorn, four of corn, one of potatoes, and beans; besides quite a good garden.” Most of this farming was only being done by subsistence farmers, as the commercial monocropping wave was approaching.

        1850-1940

        Steam Engine Powered Tractor

        Photo Courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society

        1853 – George W. Brown invented the first corn planter, previously to 1850 corn had to be planted by hand

        1855 – John Deere’s factory was selling over 10,000 steel plows a year

        1858 – C. W. Marsh and W. W. Marsh invented the “Marsh harvester”

        1862 – Homestead Act grants 160 acres of federal land to those who meet specific criteria

        1868 – First steam engine powered farm tractors are used for general haulage and specifically by the timber trade

        1880s – Heavy agricultural settlement on the Great Plains, the combine began to appear in experimental versions

        1887-1897 – Drought reduced settlement on the Great Plains

        1900-1910 – George Washington Carver developed his crop rotation method that revolutionized southern agriculture

        1926 – First hybrid-seed corn company was organized

        1930-1935 – Use of hybrid-seed corn became common in the Corn Belt

        1932-1936 – Drought and dust bowl conditions developed

        Through the Homestead Act of 1862 there was a migration toward the Great Plains as people wanted land to farm and call their own. Those farmers who could prove that they had been residing upon or farming their land for five consecutive years were granted the claim to their land. Farmers could not get more than 160 acres or work more than one claim in a lifetime (Schlebecker 1975). Farming the prairies of the Midwest began to boom leading to the heavy agricultural settlement by the 1880s. Modern monocultures also dominated the Great Plains landscape now, decreasing soil fertility and depleting the soil of much needed nitrogen.

        In the south, monocropping of cotton, a soil-depleting crop, had lead to soil degradation. George Washington Carver, while a teacher at the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute for Negroes, developed a crop rotation that would help revive the southern soil. Carver advocated that farmers alternate soil-depleting crops, such as cotton, with soil-enriching crops, such as peanuts, peas, soybeans, sweet potatoes, and pecans (Bellis 2005). Through this cycle the south underwent their own agricultural revolution that renewed their soil and in doing so their connection with the natural processes of the land.

        Unfortunately the Great Plains was suffering from drought conditions and the harsh use of their soil was emphasized. The dust bowl and depression were well on their way. “By 1933, at least 50 million acres had been laid waste. Land reduced in usefulness by half through erosion came to another 125 million acres. The destruction had, in fact, just begun (Schlebecker 1975).” In 1935 Congress created the Soil Conservation Service in order to save the fertility of the soil. Several projects were developed to help stop erosion and renew the soil fertility. Crop rotation occurred sporadically as did cover crops and contour fields. With the onset of the dust bowl drastic measures were needed. The main projects included planting drought-resistant trees that did help with soil erosion problems, but were eventually cut down and used by farmers for fuel. The primary lesson that came about through the dust bowl was the need for fertilizers and manures, a mistake American farmers would never make again (Schlebecker 1975). This changed the face of American agriculture once again as fertilizer use becomes a solution and a problem all of its own.

        1940-1990

        Minneapolis Moline Tractors Coming off the Assembly Line

        Photo courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society

        1940 – Big changes due to the increased use of tractors, crops used for livestock feed, such as oats, dropped

        1943 – DDT becomes available in the United States

        1944 – Discovery of effective herbicides

        1945-1955 – Increased use of herbicides and pesticides

        1946 – Self-propelled corn picker is placed on the market

        1950s – Many rural areas suffer population losses as many farm family members sought outside work

        1956 – Legislation passed providing for Great Plains Conservation Program

        1960s – Soybean acreage expanded as farmers used soybeans as an alternative to other crops

        1980-1990 – Biotechnology research gets underway

        1985 – Farm Bill created the Conservation Reserve Program

        1988 – One of the worst droughts in the Nation’s history hit midwestern farmers

        1990 – Farm Bill provided the first national standards for “organically grown” labeling

        As tractors became available and affordable to all farmers the efficiency with which large acres of land could be cultivated increased and therefore industrial methods of agriculture increased right alongside leading us into the era of agribusiness. Interestingly enough, World War II aided this movement by creating the conditions needed to discover herbicides and pesticides. Scientists were working to discover chemicals or other agents that could be manipulated to kill only one specific type of vegetation. Through their research they came across DDT and some of the more effective herbicides. Biological warfare helped lead the way to our modern system of agriculture.

        In conjunction with the rising of industrial farming smaller family farms were decreasing. “In 1900, there were 5.7 million farms in the United States, averaging 138 acres apiece. By 1978, the number had dropped to 2.5 million, and their average size was 415 acres. (Jackson, Berry, and Colman 1984).” Industrial agribusiness has taken the ‘culture’ out of agriculture, as Wendell Berry would say. Food production has become a business only corporations seem to be allowed to participate in. Crops are seen as commodities and traditional farmers as we know them are all but disappeared. The local knowledge and connection to the land and its processes are on the verge of being lost as well.

        As we hit the 1960s hopeful movements can be seen that are trying to renew the relationship between land and farmer, or corporation, as may be the case. The idea of crop rotation is resurfacing as the ancient benefits are once again realized. Soybeans are introduced only the first step towards a more diverse and sustainable agricultural system. The farm bill of 1985 was unproductive in that it “required farmers with highly erodible land to design approved conservation plans by 1990 to remain eligible for any government farm support or loan program, [however], other provisions still made farmers lose benefits if they used crop rotation (Soule and Piper 1992).” The 1990 farm bill changed this ruling so that farmers could use crop rotation and were even encouraged to do so.

        We are currently in a period where research is being done to discover more sustainable agricultural practices as we realize that our modern industrial system is unhealthy for humans and the environment alike. Crop rotation has been a valuable method of sustainable agriculture known by ancient civilizations and historical settlers alike, forgotten through the industrial and technological revolution that has taken hold of our country. It is time to rediscover this important tradition and all its benefits in order to restore balance to our relationship with nature and save the health of our society.

        HIV/AIDS Survey
        1. Approximately how many people are living with HIV worldwide?
          39.5 million
          25.8 million
          3.5 million
        2. Approximately how many people are living with HIV in the United States?
          1 million
          500 thousand
          27 thousand
        3. Can you get AIDS from sharing the cup of an infected person?
          Yes
          No
          Only if you don’t wash the cup
        4. Which protects you most against HIV infection?
          Condoms
          Contraceptive pills
          Spermicide jelly
        5. What are the specific symptoms of AIDS?
          There are no specific symptoms
          A rash from head to toe
          You start to look very tired
        6. Can insects transmit HIV?
          Only mosquitoes
          Yes
          No
        7. What does STD stand for?
          Sexually Transmitted Disease
          Special Treatment Doctor
          Standard Transmission Deficiency
        8. Is there a cure for AIDS?
          Yes
          No
          Only available on prescription
        9. Worldwide, HIV is most common in which age range?
          0 – 14 years old
          15 – 24 years old
          25 – 34 years old
        10. Is there a difference between between HIV and AIDS?
          Yes, HIV is the virus that causes AIDS
          No, HIV and AIDS are the same thing
          Yes, AIDS is the virus that causes HIV
        11. What percentage of those infected with HIV are women?
          Nearly 25%
          Nearly 50%
          Nearly 75%
        12. Is it possible to lower the risk of an HIV positive woman infecting her baby?
          Yes, the risk can be made much lower
          No, not at all
          Only very slightly
        13. How many sizes do condoms come in?
          Many different sizes
          Regular and large
          One size fits all
        14. How do most people become infected with HIV?
          Unsafe sex
          Injecting drugs
          Blood transfusions
        15. What is the World AIDS Day international symbol of AIDS awareness?
          A red ribbon
          A white ribbon
          A pink ribbon
          A black ribbon
          A white swan
        16. How can a person become infected with HIV?
          Being sneezed on by an infected person
          Holding hands with an infected person
          Both of these
          Neither of these
        17. How can you tell if someone has HIV?
          They look tired and ill
          They have a bad cough
          There is no easy way to tell
          They are very thin
        18. What is AIDS caused by?
          Pollution
          Homosexuality
          A virus
          Dirty water
        19. Which people can’t be infected with HIV?
          Gay men
          Heterosexuals
          Lesbians
          Children
          Married people
          No-one

        Home Nutrition Survey

        For one day, keep track of everything that you and two members of your family (or friends) eat.  For each item, determine:
        1.    How many calories it is
        2.    Where it comes from (cow, wheat, corn, etc.)

        Summarize in one paragraph of 5-7 sentences how healthy you feel that you and your family is eating based upon this information.  What changes do you think you could make in order to improve your and their diet?

        Homologous Structures

        Homologous Structures

        This diagram shows the arm, leg, flipper and wing of four mammals. All four mammals eventually descend from a common mammal ancestor, and show similar bone structures. The upper bone (that connects to the body of the animal) is called the humerus. The bones that connect the humerus to the “fingers” are the radius and ulna. The radius is found on the “thumb” side of the arm, the ulna on the little-finger side. (As an experiment, you can feel them in your own arm by holding your forearm and twisting your wrist.) The carpals form the wrist (or ankle) and the phalanges form the “fingers” or “toes.”

        1. The phalanges of the whale and human are different. Why? Include in your response the environments in which the two live.
        2. Using the above diagram and your knowledge of animals, explain why the cat and bat have different leg / wing structures.
        3. These are called homologous structures because they have similar bones but different functions. Think of two animals that have the same structure, but the animals use it for different reasons.
          1. What are the two animals?
          2. What is the structure?
          3. What are the different uses they have?

        Household Kinetic and Potential Energy

        Find three examples of potential energy that is converted into kinetic energy. Potential energy is stored in fuel, things that can fall easily, anything that has a spring inside it, and anything that is capable of movement. Ask around your house or ask friends. For each example:

        1. Identify the example
        2. Describe the moment when it has the highest amount of potential energy
        3. Describe the moment when it has the highest amount of kinetic energy.
        4. Describe a moment when it has about the same amount of potential and kinetic energy (when it is moving, but has the potential to move twice as much as it’s currently moving).

        Household Reactions
        1. Around your house, find three chemical or physical reactions that happen on a regular basis. For each one, state:
          1. What is the reaction? Explain!
          2. Is it endothermic or exothermic? Why?
        2. Assume that your house is one big reaction – this is called a system. To an outside observer, is your house endothermic or exothermic? Explain your answer, including at least three things that are going on inside the house!

        How Are Dimples Inherited?
        1. Write the last 4 digits of your telephone number.  These 4 random digits represent the alleles of a gene that determines whether a person will have dimples.  Odd digits represent the allele for the dominant trait of dimples.  Even digits stand for the allele for the recessive trait of no dimples.
        2. Use the first 2 digits to represent a certain father’s genotype.  Use the symbols “D” and “d” to write this genotype, as shown in the example.
        3. Use the last 2 digits the same way to find the mother’s genotype.  Write her genotype using “D” and “d”.
        4. Use the Punnett Square at the bottom of this lab as an example to construct a Punnett square for the cross of these parents.  Then, using the Punnett square, determine the probability that their child will have dimples.

        Analyze and Conclude:

        1. What percentage of the children will be homozygous dominant (DD)?
        2. What percentage of the children will be heterozygous dominant (Dd)?
        3. What percentage of the children will be homozygous recessive (dd)?
        4. What percentage of the children will be expected to have dimples if one parent is homozygous for dimples if one parent is homozygous for dimples (DD) and the other is heterozygous (Dd)?

        Punnett Square

        T

        t

        T

        TT  25%

        Tt  25%

        t

        Tt  25%

        Tt  25%

        How Competition Affects Growth

        You may think the term competition refers only to interactions that occur between species. However, members of the same species also compete for resources in the environment. This competition is a density-dependent factor. It depends on how many members of a species occupy the same area. Too high a density will limit growth of a population. The limit depends on the species.

        Materials

        • 2 small paper cups
        • 18 bean seeds
        • tray
        • water
        • potting soil

        Procedure

        1. Label two paper cups 3 and 15. Use a pencil to punch several small holes in the bottom of each cup. Place the cups on a tray.
        2. Fill each cup two-thirds full with potting soil.
        3. Plant 3 bean seeds in cup 3 and 15 bean seeds in cup 15. Push the seeds into the soil until they are just covered by the soil.
        4. Slowly add water to both cups until the soil is moist but not wet. Try to add about the same amount of water to each cup.
        5. Put the tray in a location that receives bright indirect light. Each day for two weeks, add an equal amount of water to the cups to keep the soil moist.
        6. Count and record the number of seedlings in each cup every other day. Describe any differences you see in the seedlings.

        Data Table

        Day

        Number of Seedlings

        Observations

        Cup 3

        Cup 15

        2

        4

        6

        8

        10

        12

        14

        Analyze and Conclude

        1. What was the difference in the number of seedlings growing in each cup after two weeks?
        2. What differences other than number did you observe about the seedlings growing in the two cups?
        3. What resources are the seedlings competing for?

        Build Science Skills

        Write a hypothesis that describes what happened in your experiment. Include details about the design of the experiment in your hypothesis. Hint: Use the words if and then in your hypothesis.

        How Viruses Spread

        By Randall Good

        This activity will show you how viruses can spread through a population. You will receive one test tube and one pipette, which may or may not contain a mildly toxic acid, so be careful with it!

        1. Move around the room for five minutes and exchange fluids with at least three other people.
        2. Return the pipettes to the front of the room and then go back to your seat without spilling your test tube.
        3. Put a pipette full of pH indicator in your test tube.

        One of the test tubes had originally been infected with the acid; it is now our task to figure out who was the source of the “virus”! This person will be called patient zero.

        1. Write down all of the students that you exchanged fluids with.
        2. Put a star next to each student’s name who tested positive for the virus.
        3. Could you have been patient zero? Why or why not?

        Human Activities

        From your own experiences or others’ experiences, identify one human activity that has a negative impact on the environment. Respond in complete sentences:

        1. What is it?
        2. What is the environmental impact of doing this?
        3. Why do people do it?
        4. What could people do in order to avoid making such a negative environmental impact?
        5. What can you do to help?
        6. Ask two others in the class for their responses, and write at least one paragraph each about what could be done to prevent this negative impact on the environment.

        Human Basic Needs
        1. Get in a group of 3 – 4 students.
        2. In two minutes, decide what are the five most common conflicts and write each one on a separate Post-it note.
        3. On the drawing of a tree in the front of the room, have a group member place the Post-its on the branches according to where you think they belong.
        4. Most conflicts happen due to one of the five basic needs below not being met. After reading the basic needs below, come up with one more conflict and place it on a Post-it and on the tree.
        Basic Need Description
        Belonging Loving, sharing, co-operating, “fitting in” with others
        Power Feeling important, being respected
        Freedom Making choices
        Fun Laughing, playing, finding joy in life
        Security Feeling safe from put-downs, ridicule
        1. For one of the basic needs, write and perform a one-minute skit that does the following:
          1. Shows how someone can be denied that basic need through conflict
          2. Shows how that conflict can be resolved with everyone involved getting something that they want
          3. Shows how important that basic need is to human life

        Human Blood Types

        Antigens are molecules that can trigger an immune reaction in the body. Antigens can be found on the surface of red blood cells. Human blood type A has the A antigen. Blood type B has the B antigen. Type AB has both antigens. Human blood type O carries neither antigen. The gene for blood type antigens has three alleles—A, B, and O.

        Sometimes a patient is given blood during surgery or after a serious injury. The donated blood must not introduce a new antigen into the body. Otherwise, the patient’s body will respond to the donated blood just as it would to a pathogen. So a person with type A blood can be given type O, but a person with type O blood cannot be given type A.

        Human red blood cells may also carry another antigen, known as Rh factor. Rh+ individuals carry this antigen. Rh– patients do not. Blood with a positive Rh factor can only be given to patients with a positive Rh factor. Rh– can be given to patients with a positive or negative Rh factor. The circle graph below shows the percentage of each blood type in the U.S. population.

        bloodtypes

        Analyze and Conclude

        1. People with blood type O− are sometimes called universal donors. Why?
        2. What blood type would a universal acceptor—a person who can receive any blood type—have?
        3. Study the circle graph. Which blood type is most common in the U.S. population? What percentage of the population has that blood type?
        4. Find all of the parts of the circle graph that represent a positive Rh factor. What percentage of the U.S. population has a positive Rh factor?
        5. What percentage of the U.S. population has a negative Rh factor?
        6. Which blood type can be donated to the largest percentage of people? Which type can be donated to the smallest percentage of people? Explain your answer.

        Build Science Skills

        Blood types A and B are codominant. O is recessive. Rh factor is determined by a different gene. The allele for a positive Rh factor is dominant over the allele for a negative Rh factor. Based on this information, could a person with O+ blood have two parents with O− blood?

        Human Influences

        For your assigned human influence, use the website to help you answer the questions. You will make a two-minute presentation on the human influence for the entire class. Make sure to find at least two more interesting facts (to you!) about the topic.

        Air Pollution: http://tinyurl.com/2fqszcd

        1. Where can you see air pollution?
        2. Why is air pollution aggravated?
        3. What are three of the major pollutants in air – and how are they produced?
        4. What can you do to reduce air pollution?

        Water Pollution: http://tinyurl.com/2fbhtu

        1. What are three examples of conventional water pollution?
        2. Why is conventional water pollution harmful?
        3. What is an example of non-conventional water pollution?
        4. What can you do to reduce water pollution?

        Garbage: http://tinyurl.com/34q2p

        1. How much garbage do Americans produce and why is this a problem?
        2. What approaches to dealing with solid waste do NOT work?
        3. Why is sewage treatment difficult?
        4. What can you do to reduce garbage problems?

        Hydroelectric Power: http://tinyurl.com/66mgrm

        1. What is hydroelectric power and how widely used is it?
        2. What is the negative environmental impact of hydroelectric power?
        3. Where in the world will hydroelectic power be and how much will it cost?
        4. What can you do to reduce your electricity consumption?

        Invasive Species: http://tinyurl.com/37z3w9

        1. What is the definition of an invasive species?
        2. What are three ways that invasive species are introduced?
        3. What is an example of an invasive species?
        4. What can you do to reduce the impact of invasive species?

        DDT: http://tinyurl.com/ytb6wp

        1. What is DDT used for?
        2. Why is DDT a concern in the environment?
        3. Why is DDT a concern in humans?
        4. What can you do to reduce the impact of DDT?

        CFCs: http://tinyurl.com/3al6nvk

        1. What are CFCs and where are they used?
        2. What is the negative impact of CFCs on the environment?
        3. What has been done to reduce the impact of CFCs?
        4. What can you do to reduce the impact of aerosols?

        Coral Reefs: http://tinyurl.com/2u5zc

        1. Where are coral reefs?
        2. Why are coral reefs important?
        3. Why are coral reefs being destroyed?
        4. What could be the impact of destroying coral reefs?

        Frogs: http://tinyurl.com/29fotw3

        1. What is happening to Monteverde’s (Costa Rica) harlequin frogs?
        2. Why are amphibians more susceptible to pollution?
        3. Why is a fungus killing the harlequin frogs?
        4. What can we do to stop amphibians from dying?

        Immune System "Memory"

        Your body is able to recognize pathogens as “not self.” When cells in your immune system detect antigens on the outer surfaces of pathogens, the cells try to destroy the pathogens. During an initial infection, your body makes memory B cells. These cells allow your body to respond even more quickly if you are infected by the same pathogen again. Memory B cells make new plasma cells very quickly. Plasma cells then make and release antibodies to respond to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen.

        The level, or concentration, of antibodies in a person’s blood is different for the first and second immune response. Look at the graph. The person was exposed to Antigen A for the first time on Day 1. On Day 28, the person was exposed to Antigen A again and to Antigen B for the first time. One line shows the body’s response to Antigen A. The other line shows the response to Antigen B. Use the graph to answer the questions on the next page.

        immunesystem

        Analyze and Conclude

        1. According to the graph, when did the first immune response reach a level that could be measured?
        2. What happened on Day 14?
        3. When did the peak for the second immune response to Antigen A occur?
        4. Did the body respond faster the first or the second time it was exposed to Antigen A? Use the graph to support your answer.
        5. What do you think will happen when there is a second exposure to Antigen B?

        Build Science Skills

        In terms of evolution, what selective advantage does having an immune system “memory” give an organism? Hint: Think about the body’s first reaction to pathogens. Do you think such a “memory” is found in other organisms?

        Insect Classification

        Background

        The Manduca sexta, like all insects, has certain characteristics. Those characteristics are:

        1. A body divided into three parts (head, thorax and abdomen)
        2. Three pairs of legs
        3. Usually one pair of antennae and a pair of compound eyes (a few exceptions to these characteristics are found)
        4. Usually two pairs of wings (absent in many insects such as lice, fleas, ants; flies have one pair of wings)

        In this lab, you will be identifying all of the different parts of both the caterpillar and the moth, in addition to any other insects present in class. We will have a collection of insects borrowed from the Willis lab at Case Western Reserve University.

        Materials

        • Hand Lens
        • 1 Caterpillar
        • 1 Moth
        • Pencil
        • Paper

        MethodsManducaSexta

         

        1. Using the caterpillar, turn it so that its ventral surface (underside) is facing you. Make a sketch of the caterpillar, showing all of the sections, starting with the head and ending with the terminal proleg. Clearly label:
          • The head, thorax and abdomen
          • The three pairs of legs
          • The antennae
          • Any other significant body part you notice (e.g., the prolegs)

        Using the moth, turn it so that its ventral surface (underside) is facing you. Make a sketch of the moth, showing all of the same sections as the caterpillar. With the moth, however, you will also label where the wings join the thorax.

        Keeping your two drawings side by side, clearly demonstrate with arrows which parts of the caterpillar develop into which parts of the moth.

        Repeat step #1 for all insects available for identification. Make sure that you have at least five observations for each organism.
        Analysis

        1. Make a comparison chart for the different organisms that you observed. You should have a header row and a row for each organism. The columns will be the characteristics that you observed (at least five). Inside the chart, you should put check marks or descriptions that show which organisms demonstrated which characteristics.
        2. Why do you think that you saw the similarities between organisms that you did?
        3. What do these similarities tell us about how related these organisms are to each other?
        4. Add another row to the chart, and use a human as the organism. What are the major differences?
        5. Assume that a scientist finds an organism that has three body segments: head, thorax and abdomen. It also has antennae, two pairs of wings, but only two pairs of legs. What are two possible inferences that scientist could make?
        6. According to the characteristics of insects, create a new insect by sketching something from your own imagination. Make sure that it has all of the necessary parts, then label those parts and name your organism!
        7. Choose six of the insects that you have observed. Make a dichotomous key with at least five steps that classifies these six insects according to the characteristics that you observed.

        Insect Dichotomous Keys

        Background

        In this lab, you will be identifying similarities and differences between several preserved insects. These insects are fragile, however, so you should treat them with care. The insects have been provided by the entomology lab at Case Western Reserve University and have been collected from locations all around the United States.

         

        Materials

        • Hand Lens
        • 10 – 15 mounted insects, labeled with a letter each
        • Pencil
        • Paper

         

        Methods

        1. What are some characteristics of all insects that you know?
        2. What are some characteristics of some insects that you know? In other words, what are some things that a few insects possess but others do not? What are some differences in behavior between different insects?
        3. Get a set of 10 – 15 mounted insects. Refer to the letters when writing or talking about the insects, since we are not concerned about their scientific names right now. Observe your insects with the hand lens to get a better idea of some of the less visible parts of their anatomies.
        4. While looking through the insects, determine at least seven characteristics that could be used to split the set into two groups. For example, you could say a characteristic is “Spots on Wings” and you might determine that:

         

        Has Spots on Wings A, B, D, E, H, L, N
        No Spots on Wings C, F, G, I, J, K, M

         

        For each of the seven characteristics you identify make a table like the one above.

        1. Choose which one of your seven characteristics is the best. The best one should split your set into half as closely as possible and should be something that anyone with no knowledge of insects could determine.
        2. Use the characteristic from #5 to start your dichotomous key.
          1. Label each step of your dichotomous key with a question, where the answer to that question leads to another step.
          2. As you are doing this, separate your insects into the groups you have divided them into, so you can see which insects you still need to divide up.
          3. If there are no more questions to ask, because there is only one insect left in the subgroup you have created, write the letter of the insect.
          4. Continue until you have classified every insect!

         

        Analysis

        1. Switch stations with another group. Use their insects and their dichotomous key to classify each insect. If you disagree with a classification, or you think it’s not specific enough, write down what you disagree with on a separate sheet of paper.
        2. After you and the other group are done classifying, make any improvements or changes that the other group suggested, then switch places with a second group. Again, if you disagree with a classification, write down what you disagree with on a separate sheet of paper.
        3. What did you learn was hard about classifying these insects? Write down at least two things that were difficult.
        4. Do you think you could use your dichotomous key for any insect that you found outside? Why or why not?
        5. Why do scientists use dichotomous keys?

        Introduction to JavaScript
        1. What is the main problem of programming, in the author’s opinion?
        2. What does a good programming language do, in your own words?
        3. What is the difference between JavaScript and ECMAScript?
        4. Describe, in detail, how to use the console included in this tutorial.

        Introduction: Computers

        Watch the video (http://news.cnet.com/1606-2_3-29767.html) and answer the following questions:

        1. What was the Enigma machine used to do?
        2. How many vacuum tubes did ENIAC have?
        3. Whirlwind was the first computer to use what kind of memory?
        4. Which did SAGE do, the computer that cost more than $5 billion?
        5. When did vacuum tubes stop being used?
        6. About how big was a 10MB disk drive?
        7. How much did the “Kitchen Computer” cost? What did it get you?

        Webquest: Computer Architecture

        Your task is to research the architecture of a computer, then design a basic layout for a computer with that knowledge. You will used colored paper for your design, so don’t worry about the materials!

        1. What is a computer processor (CPU)?
        2. Go to the Transistor Museum at http://semiconductormuseum.com/Museum_Index.htm. Use “Ctrl + F” to find words within a web page.
        3. How many transistors are in current microprocessor chips (Hint: Use “Ctrl + F” to find “microprocessor)?
        4. How big was the “Type A” transistor (Hint: Use “Ctrl + F” to find “Type A” and then click on the link)?
        5. About how big are modern transistors (Hint: Do a Google search for “size of modern transistors)?
        6. What do you find on a computer motherboard?
        7. What does BIOS stand for, when it comes to computers? Where is the BIOS in a computer found?
        8. What is the biggest capacity hard drive available?
        9. What is an input device? Name at least four input devices that are attached to the computer that you’re working on.
        10. What is an output device? Name at least three output devices that are attached to the computer that you’re working on.

        Introduction: Internet

        Read http://compnetworking.about.com/od/tcpiptutorials/a/ipaddrnotation.htm

        1. What does IP mean?
        2. The full range of IP Addresses is from __.__.__.__ to __.__.__.__
        3. What is the difference between IPv6 and IPv4?
        4. What are at least four devices that use IP?

        Read http://www.nthelp.com/40/ip.htm to find the private IP Addresses. An IP Address only exists if all of the numbers are between 0 and 255. If an IP Address is not private, then it is public. For each of the following, respond as to whether the IP Address is public, private or does not exist:

        1. 10.0.0.0
        2. 10.130.255.255
        3. 129.22.138.6
        4. 172.16.0.1
        5. 172.33.3.4
        6. 127.33.3.4
        7. 192.169.0.0
        8. 192.168.5.233
        9. 192.168.300.233
        10. 169.255.0.0
        11. 169.256.0.0
        12. 169.254.0.255

        Go to http://www.yougetsignal.com/tools/network-location/.

        1. This is different than your IP Address you found before because you are behind a proxy. Where is your actual IP located? (Hint: Look at the right-hand side where it says city and state)
        2. Look up google.com and four of your favorite web sites (type the website name in “Remote Address”) and record the results below:

        Web Site

        Location

        Google.com

        Routing

        Go to http://voip.about.com/od/hardware/p/whatisarouter.htm. Respond:

        1. What is a router?
        2. What does a router keep information about?
        3. When a packet of data arrives at a router, which route does it choose?
        4. Go to http://www.yougetsignal.com/tools/visual-tracert/. This tool shows you the routers that data travels on its way from your computer to the address that you give it. Complete the table below for the three web sites listed and three more that you visit on a regular basis. Replace (Your choice) with the websites that you chose. After you enter the web site, click on “Proxy Trace”.

          Web Site

          Number of hops

          Time

          (in seconds)

          Miles Traveled

          www.google.com

          www.bbc.co.uk

          Click on

          “Use Current IP”

          (Your choice)

          (Your choice)

          (Your choice)

        Domain Names
        Every “domain name” is made up of at least a domain and a top-level domain. A domain name is just an easy way to remember an IP address; every domain name links to an IP address. If we take the domain name www.google.com, “google” is the domain, “com” is the top-level domain (TLD) and “www” is something called the sub-domain.

        Go to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Internet_TLDs.

        1. What are three TLDs that you are familiar with?Scroll down to where the ccTLDs are listed (country code TLDs). List three country TLDs along with the country that they represent.
          ccTLD

          (Country Code Top-Level Domain)

          Country Represented

        Go to http://www.whois.net/. Using a TLD other than “com”, think of domain names that you would like to have for a web site. Click “Check” to see if it’s available. What is one domain name that is available?

        Ions
        1. Define:
          1. Anion
          2. Cation
          3. Ionic Bond
          4. Valence Electron
        2. What is an ion? Explain.
        3. Where in the atom do electrons come from in order to make an ion?
        4. Complete the reactions (ex.: H+ + Cl- → HCl):
          1. H+ + Br- → _____
          2. H+ + S2- → _____
          3. Mg2+ + Cl- → _____
          4. Mg2+ + S2- → _____
          5. Al3+ + N3- → _____
          6. H+ + P3- → _____
          7. Ca2+ + Cl- → _____
        5. Complete the reactions:
          1. _____ + _____ → NaCl
          2. _____ + _____ → MgCl2
          3. _____ + _____ → Na2O
        6. Using a periodic table, write out the full reactions:
          1. Potassium and fluorine
          2. Calcium and fluorine
          3. Hydrogen and oxygen
          4. Magnesium and nitrogen
        7. Draw the electron configurations for:
          1. K
          2. K+
          3. F-
          4. O2-
          5. Mg2+
          6. H+
        8. Complete the table:
          Element H Li Be F Na Cl Ar
          Gains or loses?
          How many?
        9. What do these numbers have to do with the group that the element is found in the periodic table?

        Irrigation

        After reading, you should be able to answer the following questions:

        1. How much water to vegetables need every week?
        2. What can be used in order to measure the amount of rainfall that falls in a week?
        3. How much water can the top level of soil hold?
        4. How can you increase the amount of water that is held by the soil?
        5. How does mulching help irrigation?
        6. For one of the crops that you are growing, what is the critical irrigation period?
        7. What are two benefits of irrigation?
        8. When should you and should you not irrigate a vegetable garden?
        9. What is one pro and one con of drip irrigation?
        10. What is gray water, and why is it used for irrigation?
        11. Which irrigation system should we use and why?

        Adequate soil moisture is essential for good crop growth. A healthy plant is 75 percent to 90 percent water. The plant needs that much water to carry out vital functions, including photosynthesis, support (rigidity), transpiration, and transportation of nutrients and sugars to various parts of the plant. During the first two weeks of growth, plants are becoming established and must have the proper amount of water to build their root systems. Too little water can stunt or even kill tender seedlings, while excessive moisture can prevent roots from moving out into the soil searching for water and nutrients. Without a sufficient root system, hot, dry weather can adversely affect vegetable plants as they mature. In areas prone to repeated drought, select drought-resistant varieties when buying seed or plants.

        During the growing season, from April to September, vegetable crops need enough water each week to wet the soil to 5 to 6 inches. In most soils, this is about 1 inch applied at one time in the form of rainwater, irrigation water, or both. However, some vegetables, like tomatoes and muskmelon, may require close to 2 inches of water per week for optimum production. Keep a rain gauge near the garden or check with the local weather bureau for rainfall amounts, and then supplement the rainfall with irrigation water, if needed. There are ways, however, to reduce the amount of water you have to add.

        When overhead watering bare-ground crops, one thorough watering each week of 1 to 2 inches of moisture (65 to 130 gallons per 100 square feet) at one time is usually enough for most soils. Wet the soil to a depth of 5 to 6 inches each time you water and do not water again until the top few inches of soil begin to dry.

        Trickle or drip irrigation systems use water much more efficiently. When you use a drip system, especially in combination with mulch, you will use a more frequent or continuous application of water in smaller amounts to maximize vegetable production. Even when you use a drip or trickle system, a good thorough wetting of the soil once a week for the first couple of weeks is the best technique to develop healthy root systems.

        During those times when cultural practices simply aren’t enough, when rainfall is sparse, and the sun is hot, watering can benefit the garden with higher yields and may save the garden altogether in severe drought years.

        Irrigation as a Water Deposit

        When irrigating vegetable plants, it is easy to think that you are “watering” the crop. What you are really doing is adding water to the soil. Think of this process as “making a deposit” into the water reserves. When the plant uses water, it is making a withdrawal. Just like a checking account, you can only withdraw what is in the account. When it is empty, the plant wilts and dies. Unlike a checking or savings account, however, the soil will only hold so much water. The top 12 inches of soil will generally only hold 2 to 4 inches of available water, depending on the soil type. Applying more than 2 inches, even to dry soil, may result in wasting water.

        Reducing Water Demands

        All of the water you apply may not be available to plants. This is particularly true with heavy clay soils. Clay particles hold soil moisture tightly. If, for example, there are 4.5 inches of water per foot in this type of soil, there may be as little as 1.5 inches available for plants. A relatively high level of humus in the soil, brought about by the addition and breakdown of organic matter, can improve this proportion to some extent. By causing clay particles to form aggregates or large clumps of groups of particles, humus also adds air spaces to tight clays, allowing moisture to infiltrate the soil, instead of puddling and running off the top of the soil.

        The moisture-holding capacity of sandy soils is also improved by the addition of organic matter. Although most soil water in sandy soil is available, sandy soils typically have low water-holding capacities. The water drains through sandy soils so quickly that plant roots are unable to find much water even a few days after a rain. Humus in sandy soil gives the water something to cling to until the plants need it. Adding organic matter is the first step in improving moisture conditions in the garden.

        Mulching

        Mulching is a cultural practice that can significantly decrease the amount of water you need to add to the soil. A 2- to 3-inch (6 to 8 inches of loose straw or leaves will compact to 2 to 3 inches of mulch) organic mulch can reduce water needs by as much as half. Mulches smother weeds, which take up and transpire moisture, and reduce the evaporation of moisture directly from the soil. Organic mulches themselves hold some water and increase the humidity level around the plant. If the mulch becomes dry, it may be necessary to add an extra 1 or 2 inches of water to soak through the mulch when doing overhead watering. Black plastic mulch also conserves moisture, but may increase soil temperatures dramatically during the summer (to the detriment of some plants and the benefit of others) if not covered by other mulch materials or foliage. (See Mulches for the Home Garden, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 426-326, http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/426-326/.)

        Shade and Windbreaks

        Shade and windbreaks are other moisture conserving tools. Plants that wilt in very sunny areas can benefit from partial shade during the afternoon in summer. Small plants, in particular, should be protected. Air moving across a plant carries away the moisture on the leaf surfaces, causing the plant to need more water. In very windy areas, the roots often cannot keep up with leaf demands, and plants wilt. Temporary or permanent windbreaks can help tremendously.

        Critical Irrigation Periods

        By knowing the critical watering periods for selected vegetables, you can reduce the amount of supplemental water you add. This can be important where water supplies are limited. In general, water is needed most for germination of seeds, immediately after transplanting, during the first few weeks of development, and during the development of edible storage organs. Following are critical periods for selected vegetables.

        1. Cauliflower – Head development
        2. Corn, sweet – Silking, tasseling, ear development
        3. Cucumber – Flowering, fruit development
        4. Eggplant – Flowering, fruiting
        5. Lettuce – Head development; moisture should be constant
        6. Melons – Flowering, fruit development
        7. Peas – Pod filling
        8. Tomato – Flowering, fruiting

        Irrigation Benefits

        Irrigation practices, when properly used, can benefit the garden in many ways:

        • Aid in seed emergence
        • Reduce soil crusting
        • Improve germination and plant stand
        • Reduce wilting and checking transplant growth
        • Increase fruit size of tomato, cucumber, and melon
        • Prevent premature ripening of peas, beans, and sweet corn
        • Maintain uniform growth
        • Improve the quality and yield of most crops

        Irrigation Methods

        As a home gardener, you have several options for applying water to plants. Most gardeners either use overhead watering (a sprinkling can, a garden hose with a fan nozzle or spray attachment, or portable lawn sprinklers). You can also use drip or trickle irrigation, which includes soaker hoses (an extrusion product of ground up tires), thin wall drip irrigation tapes, drip emitters, and spray stakes. When properly cared for, quality equipment will last for a number of years.

        Some basic techniques and principles for overhead irrigation:

        Adjust the flow or rate of water application to about 3/4 to 1 inch per hour. A flow much faster than this will cause runoff unless the soil has exceptionally good drainage. To determine the rate for a sprinkler, place small tin cans at various places within the sprinkler’s reach, and check the level of water in the cans at 15-minute intervals.

        When using the oscillating type of lawn sprinklers, place the sprinkler on a platform higher than the crop to prevent water from being diverted by plant leaves and try to keep the watering pattern even by frequently moving the sprinkler, overlapping about half of each pattern.

        Do not wet the foliage in the evening; this can encourage diseases. Early-morning watering is preferred.

        It is best to add enough water to soak the soil to a depth of 5 to 6 inches. This requires approximately 2/3 gallon of water for each square foot or 65 to 130 gallons for 100 square feet of garden area. This varies with soil type. Frequent, light irrigations will encourage shallow rooting which will cause plants to suffer more quickly during drought periods, especially if you do not use mulches. On the other hand, too much water, especially in poorly drained soils, can be as damaging to plant growth as too little water.

        Drip or Trickle Irrigation

        Several types of drip or trickle equipment are available. The soaker hose is probably the least expensive and easiest to use. It is a fibrous hose that allows water to seep out all along its length at a slow rate. However, this is not an engineered product and tends to lack uniformity of application. Soaker hoses also make great chew toys for critters like ground squirrels.

        There are also hoses with holes in them that do basically the same thing; water drips out the holes (drip irrigation tape). With the latter type, a flow regulator usually has to be included with the system so water can reach the end of the hose without bursting the tape from too much pressure. Most drip tapes are designed to operate at 8 to 12 psi. Pressure-compensating drip tape has been developed that maintains an even flow across the length of the tape even on uneven slopes.

        Place perforated plastic hoses or soaker hoses along one side of the crop row or underneath the mulch. Allow the water to soak or seep slowly into the soil.

        Finally, there is the emitter-type system in which short tubes, or emitters, come off a main water supply hose. Emitters put water right at the roots of the desired plants. This is generally the most expensive form of irrigation and the most complex to set up, but it has the advantage that the weeds in the area are not watered and evaporation from the soil is minimized. This type of system is best used in combination with a coarse mulch or black plastic and for small, raised-bed or container gardens.

        Drip systems generally have some problems with clogging from soil particles and/or mineral deposits. All water, including municipal water sources, should be filtered. Due to possible sand and silt particles, well water is subject to plugging emitters more than municipal water and must be filtered. To prevent plugging, always install drip tapes or emitters with the holes pointing up.

        It is wise to make a complete investigation and comparison before purchasing a drip irrigation system.

        Gray Water

        If water supplies are short in your area and you consider using gray water (water from household uses) on your vegetable garden, you should know that at the time of writing this publication, it is illegal to use untreated gray water for irrigation in Virginia. For more information on water “reuse,” please refer to Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water for Irrigation, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 452-014 (http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/452-014/). For more information on gray water usage and regulations, please contact the Virginia Department of Health.

        In those states where the use of gray water is allowed, the following rules are recommended:

        Do not use “black water” (any water run through the toilet) because of the possibility of contamination from fecal organisms.

        It is best not to use kitchen wastewater that contains grease, harsh cleaners, ammonia, bleach, softeners, or nonbiodegradable detergents.

        If using water from the bathtub or washing machine, use only mild, biodegradable soaps. Omit softener sand bleaches. Allow wash and rinse water to mix, if possible, to dilute the soap content. Never use a borax-containing product (such as washing soda) in water to be used on a garden because of the danger of applying toxic levels of boron.

        Apply gray water to the soil, not to plant leaves.

        In summary, good irrigation practices are critical to good plant growth and fruit production. In addition, good irrigation practices are efficient and conserve water while providing for the plant’s needs.

        Karyotype Puzzle

        Errors can occur during meiosis as an organism creates gametes. Sometimes, extra chromosomes are copied and other times they are deleted. This means that the organism can have too many or too few chromosomes and usually will not make it to birth. Other times, the organism is born with physical or mental differences. In this activity, you will be given the chromosomes of an individual and it is up to you to discover what the genetic disorder is.

        1. Get a packet of chromosomes and a karyotype reference sheet. Order the chromosomes by size, remembering that the Y chromosome (if present) is smaller than the X chromosome.
        2. Once you have a complete karyotype that matches one of the karyotypes in the reference sheet, identify the karyotype and call the teacher over.
        3. What effects do you think that this disorder has on the individual? Make a hypothesis based on what you know about genetics and chromosomes.
        4. Use the reference materials available to research the disorder. What effects does this disorder have on the individual?

        Kinetic vs. Potential Energy
        1. Define potential energy and kinetic energy.
        2. For each of the following situations, describe how you would obtain the greatest amount of potential energy and where you could measure the greatest amount of kinetic energy:
          1. A ball suspended on a rod with a string (a pendulum)
          2. A ball and an inclined plane at 45 degrees
          3. A penny, cup and index card
          4. A long spring
          5. A two-meter high platform and a ball
        3. Potential energy due to gravity can be calculated by the following formula:

          How are height, mass and potential energy related? Answer in terms of what happens when height and mass increase.

        Kingdoms of Life

        In this activity, you will do research to complete the following chart:

        Name Kingdom Multi- or single-celled? Does photosynthesis? Has a centriole?
        Bed bug
        House fly
        Yeast
        Yogurt
        E. coli
        Corn
        Moss
        Beans
        Mushroom
        Fern
        Cheese
        Amoeba

        Latin & Greek Roots
        1. Make vocabulary flash cards for 20 of the roots.
        2. Using the roots, define the following as best you can:

         

        • Protozoan
        • Telepsychic
        • Polyphonic
        • Homonym
        • Microgravity
        • Endothermic
        • Heterophilic
        • Osteoscope
        • Ecology
        • Auditorium
        1. Using the roots, invent five words of your own.

         

        • Define them.
        • For what you feel is your best word, make a sign for it with a picture to hang up in the room.

        Learning Styles

        Go to Moodle to do the Learning Styles activity.

        Leaves & Evolution

        Get five different dead or live leaves. They should all be from different kinds of trees and plants, not just different colors: keep in mind that anything that a plant uses for photosynthesis is a leaf! Organize them in some way, as you will hand in the leaves with your homework assignment. Answer the following questions:

        1. Homeostasis is the balance of an organism with its environment. Examples of homeostasis include a human sweating on a hot day, shivering on a cold day, and eating food in order to maintain the same amount of energy. Now think about the plants that you got these leaves from. How do these leaves demonstrate the homeostasis of the plant? Keep in mind that I am asking you about information you already know: plants need water, sunlight and carbon dioxide.
        2. Natural selection is an evolutionary process that results in the fittest organisms surviving. Using any of the characteristics of these leaves (such as shape, size, color, shininess, etc.), what are two ways that these plants have found to survive better than other plants around them?

        Levers

         

        Read the information to fill in the following blanks:

        1. A lever is a simple machine that makes _______________ easier; it involves moving a _______________ around a pivot called a fulcrum using a force. Many of our basic tools use levers.
        2. In a Type 1 [1st class] Lever, the _________________ is between the effort and the load. In an off-center type one lever (like a pliers), the load is larger than the effort, but is moved through a smaller_____________.
        3. Three examples of common tools (and other items) that use a type 1 [1st class] lever include:
        4. In a Type 2 [2nd class] Lever, the ________________is between the pivot (fulcrum) and the effort.
        5. Three examples of 2nd class levers are:
        6. In a Type 3 [3rd class] Lever, the ____________________is between the pivot (fulcrum) and the load.
        7. Three examples of 3rd class levers are:

        Levers are one of the basic tools that were probably used in prehistoric times. Levers were first described about 260 BC by the ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes (287-212 BC). A lever is a simple machine that makes work easier for use; it involves moving a load around a pivot using a force. Many of our basic tools use levers, including scissors (2 class 1 levers), pliers (2 class 1 levers), hammer claws (a single class 2 lever), nut crackers (2 class 2 levers), and tongs (2 class 3 levers).


        A Type 1 Lever.

        A Type 2 Lever.

        A Type 3 Lever.

        Type 3 Lever

        In a Type 1 Lever, the pivot (fulcrum) is between the effort and the load. In an off-center type one lever (like a pliers), the load is larger than the effort, but is moved through a smaller distance. Examples of common tools (and other items) that use a type 1 lever include:

        Item Number of Class 1 Levers Used
        see-saw a single class 1 lever
        hammer’s claws a single class 1 lever
        scissors scissors 2 class 1 levers
        pliers pliers 2 class 1 levers

        Type 2 Lever

        In a Type 2 Lever, the load is between the pivot (fulcrum) and the effort. Examples of common toolsthat use a type 2 lever include:

        Item Number of Class 2 Levers Used
        stapler a single class 2 lever
        bottle opener a single class 2 lever
        wheelbarrow a single class 2 lever
        nail clippers Two class 2 levers
        nut cracker Two class 2 levers

        Type 2 Lever

        In a Type 3 Lever, the effort is between the pivot (fulcrum) and the load. Examples of common tools that use a type 3 lever include:

        Item Number of Class 3 Levers Used
        fishing rod a single class 3 lever
        tweezers Two class 3 levers
        tongs Two class 3 levers
        1. Levers are an essential part of many mechanisms. They can be used to change the___________, the ____________ and the _______________ of movement.
        2. The fixed point of the lever about which it moves is known as the_________________.
        3. In the example on the webpage, the force and the load move in opposite directions. With the force three times closer to the fulcrum them the load lifted is only one ____________ of the force but it move three times as______________.
        4. First order lever. Like a see-saw or balance, the _____________ and the ______________ are separated by the fulcrum. As one moves up the other moves____________________. The amount and the strength of the movement are proportional to the __________________from the fulcrum.
        5. Second order lever. A wheel barrow is a second order lever. Here the load is between the _______________and the fulcrum. This uses mechanical advantage to ease lifting of a large weight.
        6. Third order lever. Here the _______________ is between the fulcrum and the load. Mechanical advantage is reduced but the movement at the load point is increased.
        7. Draw and label a diagram of each of the 3 types of levers: 1st Class, 2nd Class, 3rd Class

        Levers are an essential part of many mechanisms. They can be used to change the amount, the strength and the direction of movement.  The position of the force and the load are interchangeable and by moving them to different points on the lever, different effects can be produced. The fixed point of the lever about which it moves is known as the fulcrum. In this example the force and the load move in opposite directions. With the force three times closer to the fulcrum them the load lifted is only one third of the force but it move three times as far.

        First order lever. Like a see-saw or balance, the load and the force are separated by the fulcrum. As one moves up the other moves down. The amount and the strength of the movement is proportional to the distance from the fulcrum.

        Second order lever.A wheel barrow is a second order lever. Here the load is between the force and the fulcrum.  This uses mechanical advantage to ease lifting of a large weight.

        Third order lever. Here the force is between the fulcrum and the load. Mechanical advantage is reduced but the movement at the load point is increased.

        Procedure:
        From the available materials, make three lever systems (one of each order) and answer these questions for each:
        1. How much force (n) does it take to lift (move) the load?
        2. Can you lift (move) a load using only one finger?
        3. Does it always take the same amount of force to lift (move) the load?
        4. Where should you apply effort to lift (move) a load with the least amount of force?
        5. How does the amount of force needed to lift (move) a load change when the type of lever system changes?

        Lung Capacity

         

        Balloon Diameter in Centimeters
        Column A: Vital Capacity Column B: Expiratory Reserve Column C: Tidal Volume
        Trial #1 cm cm cm
        Trial #2 cm cm cm
        Trial #3 cm cm cm
        Trial #4 cm cm cm
        Trial #5 cm cm cm
        Row 6: Average cm cm cm
        Row 7: RadiusDivide Row 6 by 2 cm cm cm
        Row 8: CubeRow 7 x Row 7 x Row 7 cm3 cm3 cm3
        Row 9: Lung volumeMultiply Row 8 by 3.14 cm3 cm3 cm3
        1. Stretch a balloon several times. Take as deep a breath as possible. Then exhale all of the air that you can into the balloon and pinch the balloon closed to prevent air from escaping.
        2. Measure and record the diameter of the balloon in Column A, by placing the balloon on the table next to a ruler that is placed on the table vertically. This is your vital capacity.
        3. Deflate the balloon and run four more trials. Record the diameter of the balloon for each trial.
        4. Exhale normally. Without inhaling, put the balloon in your mouth and exhale all the air still left in your lungs. This is your expiratory reserve.
        5. Measure and record the diameter of the balloon in Column B. Run four more trials, recording the diameter of the balloon for each trial.
        6. Take in a normal breath. Exhale into the balloon only as much air as you would normally exhale. Do not force your breathing. This is your tidal volume.
        7. Record the diameter of the balloon in Column C. Run four more trials and record each balloon diameter.
        8. Calculate the average for each column in row 6.
        9. Divide the average by two in row 7. This gives you the average radius.
        10. Cube the radius in row 8.
        11. Multiply the cube by pi (3.14) in row 9. This gives you the lung volume.
        12. Define:
          1. Vital capacity
          2. Expiratory reserve
          3. Tidal volume
        Type Male Female
        Vital capacity 5000 cm3 4000 cm3
        Expiratory reserve 1200 cm3 1000 cm3
        Tidal volume 525 cm3 475 cm3

        Average adult lung volumes measured with a spirometer

        1. Respond to the table above:
          1. How does your average vital capacity compare to the value obtained by spirometer?
          2. Why might these numbers not agree?
          3. How could you improve the accuracy of this experiment without using a spirometer?
        2. A close relationship between height and vital capacity exists. Complete this chart using your height for Column A and one of the following factors for Column B: 20 for females, 22 for female athletes, 25 for males, 29 for male athletes. Your height in inches multiplied by 2.54 will give you your height in centimeters.
        Column AYour Height in Centimeters Column BFactor Column CCalculated Vital Capacity (A x B)
        1. Are your calculated and experimental values the same? Explain.
        2. What is your breathing rate (how many times you breathe) for one minute?
        3. Calculate how much air (in cm3) you inhale in one minute.

        Making a Model of a Cell

        Each part of a plant cell has a specific function, which is often reflected in the size, shape, and location of the part. For example, the nucleus, which controls what happens in a cell, is located in the center of the cell. In this activity, you will work with your classmates to make a model of a plant cell.

        Materials

        • craft materials
        • scissors
        • index card
        • tape or glue

        Procedure

        1. Your classroom will represent a plant cell. You will make a model of an organelle or other cell part to place in your classroom “cell.”
        2. Use the table on page 175 of your textbook to select a part to model. The drawing on page 174 will give you an idea of the relative sizes of cell parts and their positions in the cell.
        3. Use the materials provided to build a three-dimensional model of your chosen cell part. Refer to other drawings in Lesson 7.2 to make your model as complete and accurate as possible.
        4. Label an index card with the name of your cell part, and list its main features and functions. Attach the card to your model.
        5. Place your model at an appropriate location in your classroom.
        6. As a class, review the completed model. If necessary, relocate some of the cell parts to reflect the spatial and functional relationships between parts of the cell.

        Analyze and Conclude

        1. A typical plant cell has a width of 50 micrometers (μm), or 5 × 10–5 m. Calculate the scale of your classroom cell model. Hint: Divide the width of your classroom by the width of a typical plant cell. Use the same unit for both measurements.
        2. How is your model of a cell part similar to the actual cell part? How is it different?
        3. How is the structure of your cell part adapted to its function?

        Build Science Skills

        If you were starting over, what would you do to improve your model?

        Making Genes
        1. Ask a friend or family member for a genetic trait that they are familiar with. Write this trait down and label it the dominant trait.
        2. Figure out what the opposite (recessive) trait would be and write it down as the recessive trait.
        3. Make a random “allele” of DNA that is five codons long. Mark off each codon with a bracket or line. This DNA will represent the dominant trait.
        4. Change one of the codons of DNA from the dominant trait. Mark off each codon as with #4. This DNA will represent the recessive trait.
        5. What is the first letter of the name of the dominant trait (from #1)? This is the letter you will use for step #6.
        6. Using this letter (from #5), combine someone who is homozygous recessive for your chosen trait with someone who is heterozygous. Show the Punnett’s Square.
        7. Show the percentages for each of the genotypes that result from the Punnett’s Square in #6. For each different genotype in #7:
        • Write the genotype, and next to it, the DNA that gets expressed (from either the dominant or recessive allele).
        • Below the DNA, write the corresponding mRNA.

        Measurement & Body Proportion

        The science of body measurements and proportion is known as Anthropometry and was developed by Alphonse Bertillion in 1883. It is a technique used to predict or profile a suspect based upon body proportions. It is also used to help to identify the remains of unknown people. Today you are going to compare measurements and determine if there is a correlation, using your results to determine if you can develop the profile of a potential suspect.

        Police and forensic investigators are called to the scene of a breaking and entering crime in a residential area. At the scene of the crime, the investigators recover a muddy shoe print outside a broken window. Upon investigation, they determine that it is a male size 8, Nike tennis shoe. On the window sill is a hand print which measures 15cm. Develop a profile of the suspect or suspects. Is this evidence of one suspect or two? Upon what evidence do you base your conclusions?

        Name Male shoe size Female shoe size Length of shoe Length of foot
        Joseph 14 30cm 26cm
        Brandy 10 16cm 13cm

        Shoe Measurement Table (includes examples)

        1. Record your shoe size. Make sure you tell the difference between male and female.
        2. Measure the length of the sole of your shoe in centimeters. Record.
        3. Measure the length of your foot in centimeters. Record.
        4. Record the information for every student in the group in your chart.
        Name Length of Face Circumference of Head Length of Profile

        Head Measurement Table

        1. Measure the length of your face in centimeters. Your face is considered to be from your hairline to the tip of your chin. Record.
        2. Measure the circumference of your head in centimeters. Measure from 4cm above your eyebrows around your head (your hat size). Record.
        3. Measure the length of your profile in centimeters. This is from the top of your head to the edge of your jaw. Record the data.
        4. Record the information for every student in the group.
        Name Length of Hand Wrist Length of Forearm

        Arm Measurement Table

        1. Measure the length of your hand from the tip of your middle finger to the base of your palm in centimeters. Record.
        2. Measure the distance around your wrist in centimeters. Record.
        3. Measure the length of your forearm from the base of your palm to the inside of your elbow in centimeters. Record.
        4. Record the information for every student in the group.
        Name Height Wingspan

        Wingspan Measurement Table

        1. Measure your height from the top of your head to the soles of your feet in centimeters. Record.
        2. Measure your wingspan from the tip of your right hand middle finger across your body to the tip of your middle finger of your left hand in centimeters, with your arms fully extended. Record.
        3. Record the information for every student in the group.
        4. Help the class combine the data for all of the students. Using this data make graphs with:
          1. Shoe size on the X axis and length on the Y axis
          2. Length of profile on the X axis and circumference on the Y axis
          3. Length of the hand on the X axis and the wrist and forearm on the Y axis
          4. Height on the X axis and wingspan on the Y axis
        5. For each of the graphs, answer:
          1. Is there a correlation between the X and Y axis?
          2. What does this graph tell you?
        6. Based on this information, give a profile of the suspect at the crime scene.

        Memory

        Now or Later – The “Recency/Primary” Effect

        1. Here is a memory experiment that requires a group of subjects to test.
        2. Get 5 or more students in the class to serve as your experimental subjects. Tell them that you will read a list of 20 words and that their job is to remember as many of the words as possible.
        3. Read the following list of 20 words at a rate of 1 word every second. Ask your subjects to write down the words that they can remember immediately after you finish reading the list. Here is the list of words: “cat apple ball tree square head house door box car king hammer milk fish book tape arrow flower key shoe”
        4. Which three words were recalled the best?
        5. Was there better recall of words that were read first or last?  To answer this, assign a “position” to each word that you read. So, “cat” was word #1, apple was word #2, ball was word #3, and shoe was word #20. Calculate the percent of recall for each word. For example, if you had 10 subjects and 7 of them remembered the word “cat”, then “cat” (word #1) had a percent recall of 70%. Calculate the percent of recall for each of the 20 words.
        6. Now plot your results: the X-axis will be word position and the Y-axis will be % recall.
        7. Do you see a pattern?
        8. Does is look anything at all like this figure?
        9. The results of this kind of experiment usually result in a graph similar to this one. This kind of graph is called a “serial-position curve.” Words read first and words read last are remembered better than words read in the middle of a list.
        10. This type of experiment provides evidence that there are 2 types of memory processes. It is thought that memory is good for the words read last because they are still in short term memory – this is the recency effect. Memory is good for the words read first because they made it into long term memory – this is the primacy effect.  It is also possible that some words in the list were very easy to recall for other reasons. For example, if your teacher just dropped a hammer on his or her toe, then everyone may find that the word “hammer” was easy to remember. Or perhaps, the last name of someone in the group of subjects is “King”, then everyone would remember the word “king”.
        11. You can try this experiment again with a slight twist. Ask a new set of subjects to remember the same set of words. However, immediately after you finish reading the list, DISTRACT your subjects by having them count backwards from 100 by threes (100, 97, 94, 91, etc) for about 15-30 seconds.
        12. Plot your serial position curve again. Do you see any changes?
        13. Usually, distraction causes people to forget the words at the end of the list. Did it happen to your subjects?

        Methods of Natural Selection
        1. Make a Six-Tab Foldable:Six Tab Book
        2. Label the tabs:
          • Geographic Separation
          • Homologous Structures
          • Analogous Structures
          • Embryology
          • Adaptive Radiation
          • Founder Effect
        3. Answer the questions for the tab that you have been assigned in the tab itself:
          • http://shawmst.org/biology/activity/adaptive-radiation/
          • http://shawmst.org/biology/activity/geographic-separation/
          • http://shawmst.org/biology/activity/embryology/
          • http://shawmst.org/biology/activity/homologous-structures/
          • http://shawmst.org/biology/activity/analogous-structures/
          • http://shawmst.org/biology/activity/founder-effect/
        4. Get in a group of three, with two people who had different tabs than you did. Teach each other the tab that you completed so you have three of them filled out with:
          • A definition of the term
          • A sketch that represents the term
          • An interesting fact about the term
        5. In your original group, present the tab that you were assigned to the entire class. In your own organizer, write down from each presentation for tabs that you don’t already have:
          • A definition of the term
          • A sketch that represents the term
          • An interesting fact about the term

        Microscope: Energy

        You will make three slides for the microscope. One will be of pond water, one will be of some mold, and one slide will be of a part of a bean leaf. For each slide, you will make a quick sketch and identify living things that you see by kingdom. Respond:

        1. Find an animal in the pond water and describe how it moves
        2. How is the sun’s energy getting to this animal?
        3. Find evidence of life (movement or cellular organization) in the mold. Where does this life get energy from?
        4. Find the veins (empty lines) in the leaf. what travels through the leaf’s veins?
        5. How does the leaf store energy?